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2017年教師考友說

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[英語] 教師招聘考試:中小學英語教師基礎知識資料(12)

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發表于 2018-8-18 14:34:45 |只看該作者 |倒序瀏覽
2017年最新教師招聘考試內部教材
教師招考二維碼
本帖最后由 2015教師招考 于 2018-8-18 14:37 編輯

四、 完形填空與閱讀

(一) 知識概要

完形填空是一種在語意封閉的情況下考察學生閱讀能力及掌握語言基礎知識能力的綜合性題目。 學生應根據語義完整、語法正確的原則進行通篇閱讀。借助文章的 現成文字,通過邏輯思維,聯系上下文,推斷出可能的答案。然后再從所給選擇答案中逐空選出在通讀全文時腦海中已出現的答案填入空內。試推想在小學五六年級 時去讀"西游記","水滸傳",你也并非每個字都認得,每句話都能真正理解。但你還是可以明了全文的意思,讀得有滋有味。這就是語言能力。所以完形填空考 查的就是你能否在缺字,不認得字、詞語的情況下,能否全面理解文章的正確意思,然后選入適當的詞語。在選擇后還要前后彼此呼應反復驗證所選答案。有時答案 一時不易驗證,不要急于順序填寫,可能在填出后面答案時,而得到前面的答案。有時則需運用所學的詞法、句法、時態和固定搭配等知識對4個選項進行分析,比 較、排除干擾項,確定正確的答案。 待答案全部選定后,一定要復讀全文以驗證:① 所選答案是否能使全文流暢,邏輯推理是否正確。② 具體實事是否成立, 前后關系是否理順。③ 語法是否正確,其中包括時態的選擇、詞匯選擇、固定搭配等。在通讀全文時最好在可能的條件下將所選答案填入文章中,反復閱讀。而不 要在文章空中只寫選項的代號,這樣影響全文的理解,不易找出錯誤之處。在做完形填空時,應注意以下幾點:

(1) 重視首句,首段的開篇啟示作用,讀懂了第一句,或第一段有可能模擬題到全篇大意。

(2) 一定要顧及上下文間的語意聯系。在完形填空的設計中,一般是以語義為第一要素同時兼顧語法。有的4個選項單獨填入這個單句中全是正確的,但拿到文中從下文聯系起來看,則文理不通。為此要通篇考慮,顧及上下文的聯系是十分重要的。

(3) 要堅持語意第一的原則,而語法應放于第二位。完形填空形式上是一種單項選擇式的考察。但實質上也是一種閱讀能力和學生重建文意能力的考察。它一般 是利用語法的正確性與內容排斥性的矛盾而命題的。所給答案大都是離開上下文均可說得通的。但語意上辯析、排斥才能找到答案。例如:

It took Charlie Mui several months to save up seven dollars? He wanted to ______ a model plane and went to the shop with the money?

A? sell B? buy C? hold D? bring

這里肯定需要一個動詞,所給答案也都是動詞,但只能從意義上考慮而選B項。

(4) 要認真注意細節,做到語法正確。一些答案在意義上講都是正確的,但從線索上看要找出語法正確的答案。如:

Mr Evans is an old man of about sixty? His wife died a few years ago? His chi

ldren ______ him by then.

A? left B? would leave C? have left D? had left

答案應為D。這句話正確的語意都是"離開",但仔細發現有 by then 之說,由此可得出這是個動作的截止時間,應選為 had left 過去完成時態。 下面再看一些例子。

(1) 語意第一原則

A young father was visiting an old neighbour? They were standing in the old man's garden? and talking about ______ .

A? trees B? flowers C? children D? old people

那么他們談論的中心是什么呢?可能是樹、花,由于他們是在花園里談論。但如果前后的段落配合看,則其談論的也可能是孩子和老年人。這就是要求我們切勿望文生義。

(2) 語法正確,注意細節的原則

在語意正確的前題下,還要根據學過的語法知識,及詞語的固定搭配,選擇正確答案。 如:

One night the dog began to bark suddenly? It made Mr Erens  ______ ①______  to sleep? He had to get up and tried his ______ ② ______  to stop it, but the beast wouldn't stop, and kept on ______ ③ ______ ?

① A? go not B? not go C? not to go D? to not go

② A? well B? good C? better D? best

③ A? bark B? to bark C? barking D? barked

以上3個小題中所給答案從語意上都是正確的,這就要求選擇語法正確的那一個。 第一空中根據句子結構,要填一個賓語補足語。而動詞 make 后面的定語補足語應省去不定式符號 to, 且其否定式 + not,即不定式的否定式為 not to do, 而省去 to 后則應為 not do. 在動詞前直接+ not?故應選B。 而第二個空顯然是一個固定搭配。語意上為: Mr? Erens 盡力地阻止狗叫,所以應選D。 try one's best 是盡力而為之意。 第三個空顯然是 keep on doing something 連續不斷之意,應選 ing 的動詞形式。其答案為C。

(3) 根據所給答案的不同詞類,從不同角度分別考慮選擇

完形填空所給的詞往往是不同類的,這就要求對不同詞類作不同考慮。如果所缺的是動詞,那么首先在選擇語意正確的前提下,考慮動詞的時態、語態和是否是要填 入非謂語動詞。若是介詞或副詞則要考慮是否固定搭配,以及介詞、副詞在結構和意義上的選擇。若是連詞,則應更多地從句子結構和上下文的連接上選擇。若是代 詞,則應考慮性、數、格等方面,以及形容詞和副詞的比較級和最高級等。

例如: A man and his wife had a small bar near a station? They often worked late into the night, ______ ① ______ people came to drink there while they were  ______ ② ______ trains? At two o'clock one morning, one man was still at a table in the small bar? He was asleep? The bar man's wife wanted to leave? She looked ______ ③ ______ the bar several times, and each time the man was  ______ ④ ______  there? Then at last she went to her husband and said to him, "You  ______ ⑤ ______  that man six times, George ,

______ ⑥ ______ he isn't drinking anything?"

①  A? as soon as B? because C? so D? though

②  A? catching up with B? getting on C? looking after D? waiting for

③  A? at B? for C? into D? out of

④  A? always B? often C? still D? already

⑤  A? have woken B? wake C? had woken D? will wake

⑥  A? and B? but C? yet D? too

從文中看,第一選項,由于給了不同的連詞,從意義選擇應為B。第二選項均為分詞形式,也應從語意上選擇,其答案是D。 第三選項給了四個介詞,而 into 則是從外向里觀看,所以應選C。第四項是副詞 still 意為仍然,從意義上應選擇C。 而第五項所給的是同個動詞,只是時態不同。從故事情景看,只能選完成時態A。 而最后一個選項是連詞,由于句意則只能用 but 轉折連詞。

從目前完形填空初中階段的考察看,除語意第一外,更多地選擇了單詞的用法及意義,動詞的時態,短語和慣用法等。為此,要做好完形填空題目,除有較好的閱讀 能力外,更要有扎實的語言基礎知識及日常生活的邏輯推理能力。 閱讀理解能力在教學大綱中有明確的要求。它是目前條件下考查學生英語運用能力的常規題型之 一,也是分值最高的題型之一。學生的閱讀理解能力如何,標志著學生繼續深入學習的潛力有多大,它是集語法,詞匯,邏輯推理背景知識于一體的綜合語言能力的 測試。它除對學生的閱讀理解的正確性進行測試外,同時從閱讀速度、技巧、文化背景常識等方面對學生進行測試。 從近年各地中考題分析看,閱讀類測試除為一 般常規測試題型外,在試題中所占分值較大,為此應引起學生特別注意。 如何做好閱讀理解題呢?首先要求考生有足夠的基礎知識和較好的閱讀速度以及技巧方面 的訓練。同時還要注意以下幾個方面的問題。

1? 要了解閱讀測試的重點

如上所述,閱讀過程是一個綜合作用的過程,為此閱讀的測試就不能僅將著眼點放在語言結構的測試上,而是通過看,通過閱讀獲取信息的能力。 在閱讀一篇文章 時,我們首先會想到:① 文章說的是什么事情(即中心思想是什么)。② 事情發生的時間、地點、人物是什么。③ 作者所持態度如何。④ 結論是什么。 有 些說明性信息在文章中容易獲取,如:時間、數字、地點、人物等。有些信息如作者的態度,事件的結論,中心思想,文章的標題,則需通過文中線索,說明信息等 等去分析推斷才能獲取。而這些說明性及內隱性的信息正是閱讀理解的測試重點內容。而其難點在于理解、推斷、得出結論時,應從英語國家的風俗習慣、語言習 慣、宗教信仰、*****等方面來考慮,而不是僅從中國人的語言習慣來作推論。這也是這方面的難點之一。

例: John drove a taxi through the busy streets of Boston every day?John was ?____________

A? a manager B? a driver C? a policeman D? a dustman

由此我們應能由drive a taxi 來得出結論約翰是位出租車司機而不是別的什么人。

例:Mrs Barker's sister was ill? She had someone to look after her from Monday to Friday, but not at the weekend, so every Friday evening Mrs Baker used to go off to spend the weekend at her home in a neighboring town… This meant that Mr? Baker … First he had to drive home from the station? Then he had to drive his wife to the station to catch her train? Who was ill? ____________ ?

A? Mr?Baker B? Mrs Baker

C? Mr? Baker's sister D? Mrs Baker's sister

從這些只言片語中可以看出有三個人物出場,而問題的設計是表淺的,只要細心即可。

[答案] D.

從中考閱讀命題中,由于考慮到考生的能力有限,和大部分學生畢業的要求,語言結構的測試占很大一部分比重。但對于要考入重點中學的學生來講,僅僅幾分較高要求的題目可能會決定他們的升學命運。因為這一部分分值是往往使學生棘手的那些隱性問題的測試。如:

Like many other families in 1870, Katie Olson and her family had come to the grassy plains of Kansas? Katie liked the prairie and their new sold house? But with no friends to play with, she was very lonely? Besides her mother and father, she had only her little brother, Matt, for company? She missed their old home in Wisconsir?  Then one day her father had exciting news? Some settlers had bought the farm near the Olson's land? Katie became so excited on hearing the news that she thought she might burst? She begged her father to let her ride over with him to greet their new neighbors? The two rode across the prairie? They found Mr? and Mrs Laski were hard at working building their sod home? Katie was disappointed? She had hoped there would be some children to play with? But soon Mr Laski called out?" Anna, and Carl, come out of the wagon?" A boy and a girl? jumped down and came over to Katie? Katie didn't believe it? Her wish had come true?

1?  Who was the most important person in the story?

A? Matt B? Katie C? Mr Laski D? Anna and Carl

2?  What was Katie's problem in the story?

A? She had no friend. B? She didn't like Kansas.

C? She couldn't ride a horse. D? She didn't like Anna and Carl.

從上文中看,信息的獲得不是直接的,而是必須通過整個文章的閱讀,理清人物關系,掌握中心思想,才能作出正確的判定。如第一問故事中人物眾多,但一直到讀 完才知,故事講述了一個女孩Katie的事情。則她是故事的中心,所以應選擇B? 第二問是測試通過閱讀是否了解了人物的心理情緒。這些信息必須通過線 索,綜合判定,從而其結論是A。

2? 閱讀理解的解題思路和方法

閱讀理解的測試點是在通過由于閱讀所能夠獲取信息的能力上,所以解題思路的重點應放在:

(1) 通讀全文,了解文章的主題和大意;了解作者的寫作目的、對事件的態度上。

People sometimes change their way of doing business? In a village in Africa, people are using money for the first time? They're doing business with the world?  Before this tribe (部落) used money, people came to the market in the village to trade (交易) things they had for things they needed? Now people must use money to buy what they want? Before using money, people helped one another? Their father who was head of the family, gave food, and clothing to his sons and their families? In return, the sons worked for their father? Now people no longer work for one another free? Instead, they are paid for the work they do? When a new road was needed. Everyone in the village helped build it, Now people must pay money to the village chief (首領) for roads and schools? The chief hires workers to build these new projects? More and better roads and schools are being built?It is not easy for people to change a way of doing business? To change from trading goods to using money takes time?

①  The story doesn't say so, but it makes you think that ____________.

A? family members often quarrel (爭吵) about money

B? Africans do not change their way of doing business

C? Africans refuse to use money

D? families do not help one another in the same way now

[答案] D.

②  On the whole this story is about ____________ ?

A? the life of some Africans

B? changing from goods to using money

C? people helps one another

D? building roads across Africa

[答案] B.

從以上的問題看,所設提問均不是對某個具體事實。而是真對整篇文章,由此可見通讀全文,掌握中心和作者的態度的重要性。

(2) 要注重文句間的相互關系。既注重主要情節又不可忽視細節。中考中閱讀命題很多情況下是對事件的某個細節而進行測試的。

例:… on Saturday afternoon they began with the back of the house? The next Saturday Tom went to a football match while his wife painted the front of the house? The next day they found they couldn't open any of the front windows? They get them open at last, but they broke three of the seven and they were very expensive to repair

①?  They lasted for about ______ days?

A? two B? three

C? more than seven D? Less than seven

[答案] A.

②?  They had to get someone to make repair for ______ windows?

A? seven B? four C? ten D? three

[答案] D.

第一問中,如不分析第一句和第二句中的兩個 Saturday, 很可能會選擇答案C。事實上,他們只干了兩個 Saturday, 而不是從這個星期六到下個星期六的7天時間。而第二問是他們弄壞了所有7個窗戶中的3個,所以應選D。

(3) 特別注意首尾句在整個文章中的作用,以及它起到的啟示和結論性作用。

例: Man has a big brain? He can think, learn and speak… …but no animal learns when we speak? Scientists do not really know? They only know that man can speak because he has a big brain?

這篇文章只要我們注意了首尾句,即可得出結論,它是講述人類大腦與語言的關系的。人腦的其中一個作用是使他擁有語言,也就是和動物 apes, dogs 有了根本的區別。這樣這篇文章的許多細節可以迎刃而解了。

①?  In what way are men different from animals?

A? Men can understand things quickly.

B? Men can learn.

C? Men have learned language.

D? Men have brains.

[答案] C.

②?  Scientists now know ?______

A? how children learn to speak

B? why apes can learn a few words

C? men's brain helps him to learn to speak

D? what happens when men speak

[答案] C.

③?  What is the topic the writer wants to talk about?

A? ape's language

B? men's brain and language

C? human brain

D? animals' learning

[答案] B.

以上只是做閱讀練習中的一般分析,要取得優異成績,還有賴于扎實的閱讀基礎和語言能力,以及平時的技巧訓練和刻苦練習。要堅持每天至少讀三四篇文章,以逐步提高自己的英語水平。

(二) 例題解析

通讀下面短文,掌握其大意。然后從短文后各題所給的四個選項中選擇最佳的一項。

Once there was a clever farmer? Though he was poor, he decided one day to take the king a roast goose (烤鵝) as a present? He had not had ____ 1 ____to cat that day, and soon the ____ 2 ____  of the roast goose became too much for him as (當……時) he  ____ 3 ____  it to the king, so he ate one of its legs? When he came before the king and gave him the goose, the king ____ 4 ____ saw that it had only one leg? Now, the king ____ 5 ____  was born with one bad leg, so he had never been able to ____ 6 ____  properly (正常地)? When he saw the goose with only one leg, he thought the farmer had ____ 7 ____  this to laugh at him? Of course he was very ____ 8 ____ ? The farmer was told that if anybody laughed at the king, he would be ____ 9____  at once? "Where is ____ 10 ____  leg of the goose?" the king asked? " All the geese (goose 的復數) in this  ____ 11 ____  of the country have one leg only, " the farmer answered? "Do you think I'm a fool(傻子)?" the king shouted? "____ 12 ____ ," said the farmer, "if you look out of the window, you will see geese with one leg by the  ____ 13____ ?" The king looked, and there the geese were  ____ 14 ____  on one leg beside the water? The king at once told one of his men to  ____ 15 ____  them with a big stick, and of course, they  ____ 16 ____ their other legs and ran away? "There, " said the king? " You were lying(說謊)? That  ____ 17 ____  that the geese here have two legs, like all other  ____ 18 ____  in the country?" "But it doesn't show anything," answered the farmer, "if your men threw a big stick like that at me, I would grow two  ____19 ____  legs myself to help me to run away ____ 20 ____ ?"

1? A? less B? all C? little D? much

2? A? head B? neck C? smell D? temperature

3? A? returned B? carried C? sent D? handed

4? A? at once B? at last C? by then D? on time

5? A? once B? really C? himself D? yet

6? A? come B? walk C? see D? eat

7? A? kept B? done C? made D? found

8? A? sorry B? worried C? sad D? angry

9? A? helped B? killed C? saved D? covered

10? A? other B? another C? that D? the other

11? A? city B? village C? farm D? part

12? A? Certainly not B? Of course C? That's nothing D? Never mind

13? A? hole B? forest C? lake D? house

14? A? swimming B? resting C? flying D? lying

15? A? fill B? lock C? hit D? keep

16? A? sent up B? put down C? did with D? moved away

17? A? shows B? talks C? sees D? knows

18? A? geese B? animals C? legs D? farmers

19? A? slower B? faster C? less D? more

20? A? more slowly B? more carefully C? faster D? earlier


[答案] 1? D 2? C 3? B 4? A 5? C

6? B 7? B 8? D 9? B 10? D

11? D 12? A 13? C 14? B 15? C

16? B 17? A 18? A 19? D 20? C

其中1選 much是應能從文章字里行間中猜到的,它應為much food to eat? 而將food 省略。2要知道 smell 可以作系動詞,但也可以作名詞,而4則為多個短語的詞語辨析:at once 立刻, at last 最終, by then 到那時為止,on time 準時。所以應為at once? 7則要熟悉英語的習慣用法,即干這件事要用do,而不用make? 10之所以要用D則是因為鵝有兩只腿,由于只剩一只而問另一只哪里去了, 要用特指的定冠詞。而 other 則為泛指的形容詞,一般指復數, another雖然也指單數,但也應用于泛指的情況。而11題因其后有 of the country, 是在鄉村的這個部分,所以只能用part? country 是不可數名詞作"鄉村"講,作為可數名詞則作"國家"講。而作"鄉村"講時,前面的定冠詞不可少。19則是要通讀全文才知道鵝一只腿站立體息,而一被哄趕 則放下另一只腿跑走了,人是兩條腿站著,當被哄趕時那應是再長出兩條腿奔跑著逃走。由此可見中考的難題越來越不在語法項,而在閱讀和完形上用以選拔高質量 的學生。

We were going to play a team from a country school? They didn't come until the game time arrived? They looked  ____ 1 ____  than we had thought? They were wearing dirty blue jeans (仔褲) and looked like farm boys? We even thought that they had never seen a basketball before? We all sat down? We felt that we didn't  ____ 2 ____  any practice (訓練) against a team like that? It was already so late that no ____ 3 ____  could be given to them for a warm?up? The game began? One of our boys ____ 4 ____  the ball and he shot (擲) a long pass to our forward (前鋒)? From out of nowhere a boy in a dirty T?shirt ____ 5____  the pass and with a beautiful form (姿勢) he shot and got two points (分)? They  ____ 6 ____  us? Then they got another ____ 7____  of points in a minute? Soon it was all over? The country team  ____ 8____  us? We certainly learned that even though a team is good, there is usually another  ____ 9 ____ a little better? But the important lesson learned was: One can't tell a man, or a team, by the  ____10 ____

1? A? stronger B? younger C? worse D? less

2? A? get B? try C? use D? need

3? A? basket B? space C? ball D? time

4? A? got B? played C? missed D? carried

5? A? caught B? changed C? started D? stopped

6? A? surprised B? kept C? broke D? hit

7? A? half B? pair C? group D? double

8? A? won B? saved C? beat D? joined

9? A? just B? already C? about D? almost

10? A? T?shirts B? clothes C? places D? points

[答案] 1? C 2? D 3? D 4? A 5? D

6? A 7? B 8? C 9? A 10? B

[析] 在1題中可以看出stronger, younger worse, less 四個選項全可以選,語法是正確的。從文章開始到這里并看不出其原因為什么要選擇C,這時只能將其選擇空出往后面看,所以提醒考生要注意的是千萬不要一一對 完形填空作出選擇,有很多情況 是后面的情景決定了前面的選擇。當看到 We even thought that they had never seen a basketball before 和 We felt that we didn't need (2) any practice against a team like that? 則就肯定會得到第一個空的選項決不是比我們強壯,也不可能是少,更不可能是年輕、而是球技不佳,比我們差得很遠。 而5題是要仔細考慮才能得 到正確的結論。這四個動詞都可以用在籃球運動中,但要注意的是,其后面的名詞是pass,在這里應譯為"長傳"。而這個長傳這里決不是開始,而是被截住 了。所以這里應用stopped。 即"攔截了一個長傳。"而 caught 的賓語應換為ball球就對了。B 選項為"改變",用于這里就不合題意了。而7項雖然很多人都知道籃球規則,投一球按兩分計算,但這里應選哪個詞則拿不準了,主要在B選項與D選項之間發生 了問題。不知double的真實意義是"加倍,翻一翻"之意,還是"一對,一雙,兩倍"之意。其困難點還有9項,它的選擇應為 just,這是由全文所決定的。它的意思是不論一個隊多么好,總會有一個隊會比你強出一點兒,哪怕是僅僅一點點。這也就是完形填空不易拿滿分之處。這里要 提醒大家的是:語言是十分靈活的,要經常不斷地學習思考才會有所進步。

Peter was a small boy? He lived with his parents in a small house near some hills? The people there were all poor? One night it was very dry and windy? When everybody was asleep, Peter suddenly heard some noise? It came out from the kitchen (廚房)? He got up and walked to the kitchen? He found that the wood beside the stove (火爐) was burning? There was no water tap (水龍頭) in the house, so he could not put out (撲滅) the fire? He shouted loudly to wake up everyone in the house? Then he ran out of his house and knocked on the doors of many houses to wake the people up? They all left their houses quickly? At last the fire was put out by the firemen? Many houses were burnt? But nobody was hurt in the fire?

1?  Peter lived with his ______ ?

A? sisters B? brothers C? uncles D? parents

2?  One night he found that ______ beside the stove was burning?

A? the table B? the wood C? the door D? the window

3?______  , so he could not put out the fire?

A? Everybody was asleep B? He couldn't shout loudly

C? The kitchen was very big D? There was no water tap in the house

4?  Peter knocked on the doors of many houses ______?

A? to wake the people up B? to get some water

C? to find his classmates D? to visit them

5?______  hurt in the fire?

A? People in other houses were B? Peter's parents were

C? Nobody was D? Peter was

[答案] 1? D 2? B 3? D 4? A 5? C

[析] 本題屬于表層理解閱讀考查題目,因為完成其答案所需要的信息基本上可以直接從文章中獲取,并不太多的需要推理和對環境,習俗的分析與了解。例如1題可直接 從文章中 He lived with his parents in a small…中獲取。2 題則可以從 He found that the wood beside the stove was buring 獲取答案。3 題幾乎是文章中的原句, There was no water tap in the house? 所以得分率會很高。4 題也可從文章中:Then he ran out of his house and knocked on the doors of many houses to wake the people up? 直接找出答案。5題的答案則可以從文章中最后一句獲得,如: But nobody was hurt in the fire。 這樣的閱讀題目,是屬于表層理解題目,也就是為了那些獲取畢業成績的分數所設計的。其目的在于對普通同學給予適當的分以求達到畢業之目的。這樣的題目雖然 容易,但還是要小心為好,不要粗心大意,以免不必要的丟分。

"You're just in time, Joe? We're going to play cowboys (牛仔) and Indians, and you can be the Indians, " one of my cousins (堂兄弟) said? "How many Indians?" I asked? "Oh, about a thousand," he answered, and before I could say no, I was pushed out into the night and became a thousand Indians? Two minutes later I was running in the fields with a group of cowboys behind? The shouts of "After them? Let's catch the killers!" and other such TV?play language came into my ears as I ran round a corner and hurried into my Grandpa's car? "We've got him, boys? Let's go and catch him!" But no one wanted to come to get me? All of my cousins except one were always very friendly with me? It was quiet outside? And I went out of the car to have a look? Just then I heard a shout, "Bring the rope (繩子), and we can burn him?" "Only Indians burn people? Cowboys …," I stopped just in time? I had almost said, "Cowboys hang (絞死) people?" I was tied to a tree, and the cowboys were looking for some wood when my dear mother called, "We're leaving now?" "Untie me," I shouted? "We're going?" "Why did Bobby want matches (火柴)?" Mum asked when we were in the car? "He was asking Dad whether he had any?" "Oh, he was just going to matches? MATCHES? Are you sure he wanted matches?" Mother was quite sure, and I didn't say any more?

1?  How many children played the Indians?

A? One thousand. B? One hundred. C? One group. D? One.

2?  Why did Joe's cousin say that Joe was just in time? Because ______ ?

A? there were not enough children for the game

B? the game was just going to start

C? none of his cousins wanted to be the Indians

D? they were waiting for Joe

3?  Joe didn't say "Cowboys hang people?" out because ______?

A? he was tied to a tree

B? that would make things worse

C? he was caught by the cowboys

D? that would make the cowboys angry

4?  Which of the following is TRUE?

A? One of Joe's cousins was looking for matches.

B? Dad didn't want to give the children any matches.

C? Bobby wanted to get some matches from his father.

D? Mum didn't think children should play with matches.

5?  The name of the story should be "______ "?

A? Joe and his cousins

B? Who knows what danger is waiting there

C? Cowboys?and?Indians is a favourite children's game

D? How cowboys and Indians fought in the past

[答案] 1? D 2? C 3? B 4? A 5? B

[析] 本文在閱讀過程中會感到難度,而其問題與選項的設計更為困難。其難點不僅在于要閱讀好文章,而且要對問題和問題中的選擇項作深入仔細地閱讀。如1題的問句 之意是有多少個孩子在游戲中扮演印第安人。而文章中又有"How many Indians?" I asked 當作者問到有多少印第安人時,其答語為" about a thousand?" 這對于看不懂全文,而只認識個別單詞的人就是一種很強的誤導作用。因題目中問的是 How many,而文章中的數字是 a thousand? 但如果認真往下看則會發現: I was pushed out into the night and became a thousand Indians? 我被推入了黑暗之中變成了一千個印第安人。所以文章暗示了一個小孩來扮演一千個印第安人。這種題目的得分率自然不會很高。緊接而來的2 題則更困難,問題問的是 Joe 的堂兄說他來的正是時候,是因為 ______。這是要認真去推理來判定的。由文中的句子 and before I could say no …這顯然暗示了作者并不想扮演這樣的角色,所以可以推論是沒有人愿意扮演這個角色,但正在這個時候 Joe 來了,而且不由分說把 Joe 推入了角色之中。而3題則更加困難,其題目之意是"Joe 沒有說出牛仔是絞死人"的這一句話是為了什么 ______。從文章中 Joe 被一群孩子追逐后被抓住,十分不高興,想從中解脫出來。因其他孩子講我們可以燒死他。所以 Joe 為了擺脫困境而要講出的話是:"只有印第安人才燒人,而牛仔是用繩子絞死人。"后半句沒有講出來,是因為他看到如果要燒死人還需要找柴,找火柴,還是要一 段時間的,但繩子就在他身上,如果絞死人那幾乎是立刻馬上之事。所以其答案選擇了B。 這樣的話可能會使事情更糟。4 題的題目是簡單的,即下面陳述中那個是真實的。由于中考英語答案是唯一的,所以只有一個是符合標準的。這時可以采用選取正確答案的方法,但實際上更好的辦 法是排除法。把不正確的排除后再對其他項進行對比,作出選擇。這叫作所謂的排除法。首先排除的應是C選項,因文章中講在他們上車回家的路上媽媽問他:"為 什么 Bobby 要火柴,他問爸爸是否有火柴。" 這里的爸爸顯然指的是 Joe 的爸爸而不是 Bobby的爸爸。而其他三個選項則都處于可選之例:如A項應為 Joe 的一個堂兄在找火柴。B項是爸爸不想給孩子任何火柴。D項是媽媽認為孩子們不應玩火柴。而B項,在文章中根本沒有進述Joe 爸爸的態度,所以應首先放棄,而D項是可以從推理中得到的,要不然他的母親不會在車上問這個問題,但是文章中并未直接提出來,所以只有A是對的。因其媽媽 講 Bobby 是向 Joe的爸爸尋找火柴。而5項則更是要全文反復閱讀才可能領會到其中的原由的。文章的題目要概括全部文章內容,但更重要的是從中抽取最重要的,也就是作者 的主要意圖。從文章的最后兩句,當作者反問他媽媽時說:"他真的在找火柴?火柴、你敢肯定他是在找火柴嗎?"媽媽表示十分肯定,而作者再也不講什么了。顯 然他感到如果玩下去危險的存在。所以其答案是B。這也就是中考中要求較高的題目,雖然分數不多但對要進入重點高中的學生來說,這是個關鍵問題,也就是成功 與失敗的焦點所在。

例:We spent a day in the country and picked a lot of flowers? Our car was full of flowers inside! On the way home we had to stop at traffic lights, and there my wife saw the bookshelf? It stood outside a furniture (家具)shop? "Buy it," she said at once? "We'll carry it home on the roof?rack(車頂架)? I've always wanted one like that?" What could I do? Ten minutes later I was twenty dollars poorer, and the bookshelf was tied on to the roof?rack? It was tall and?narrow, quite heavy too? As it was getting darker, I drove slowly? Other drivers seemed more polite than usual that evening? The police even stopped traffic to let us through? Carrying furniture was a good idea? After a time my wife said, "There's a long line of cars behind? Why don't they overtake(超車)?" Just at that time a police car did overtake? The two officers (警官) inside looked at us seriously when they went past? But then, with a kind smile they asked us to follow their car through the busy traffic? The police car stopped at our village church(教堂)?One of the officers came to me? "Right, sir,"he said?"Do you need any more help now?" I didn't quite understand?"Thanks, officer," I said? "You've been very kind? I live just down the road?" He was looking at our things: first at the flowers, then at the bookshelf? "Well, well," he said and laughed? "It's a bookshelf you've got there! We thought it was-er something else?" My wife began to laugh? Suddenly I understood why the police drove here? I smilcd at the officer? "Yes, it's a bookshelf, but thanks again?" I drove home as fast as I could?

1?  From the story we know that ______?

A? the writer was poor and didn't buy the bookshelf for his wife?

B? the writer's wife didn't like the bookshelf at all

C? the writer was always glad to buy something for his wife

D? the writer was not very glad to buy the bookshelf for his wife

2?  What made the writer think that carrying furniture was "a good idea"?

A? He could drive slowly and it was safe?

B? Other drivers would let him go first?

C? His wife could use a new bookshelf?

D? He could save a lot of money and time?

3?  Why were the police and other drivers so kind to the writer?

A? Because they thought the writer liked studying very much and needed a bookshelf

B? Because they didn't think it was polite to overtake a car with a bookshelf on it?

C? Because they thought somebody in the writer's family had died and he needed help

D? Because they thought it was dangerous to carry a bookshelf on a car?

4?  Why did the writer's wife begin to laugh?

A? Because now she knew what mistake the police had made?

B? Because at last her husband understood why the police had driven to the church

C? Because the officer was always looking at the flowcrs and the bookshelf?

D? Because the police had helped them a lot?

5?  When did the officers begin to realize(意識到)they had made a mistake?

A? Before they arrived at the church?

B? Before they overtook (overtake的過去式) the writer's car?

C? After one of them looked at the flowers and the bookshelf carefully at the church

D? After the writer's family left the church?

[答案] 1?D 2?B 3?C 4?A 5?C

[析] 這篇文章有英國幽默的味道。英國的幽默是十分特別的,它一般都是講述一個故事,但當結尾時僅幾句話則道出天機來。對于這樣的文章要從頭認真看到尾,不要在 考場中為了趕時間自認為是全懂了,其實則不然。造成不必要的丟分。從1題可以看出作者十分不情愿地為其妻子買了個書架呢。第二段則出現"Buy it?"這樣的祈使句。初學者不易看出里面的原委。要知道祈使句在對話中常常帶有命令,或不客氣之意,所以從這里開始已看出作者的情緒了。其后的What can I do?又是一句抱怨的話,"我還能作什么嗎?"其后又是一句風趣的抱怨:Ten minutes later I was twenty dollars poorer?即暗示十分不情愿地又花了20美元。所以其答案是D。其后2題則是推理題,從作者買了書架之后一連串的奇怪事情發生了。首先是其他的駕駛員 開車對他十分的禮貌,甚至警察阻擋其他車輛讓他先行。所以其答案是B。第3題則一句道破天機。因為前兩件事已使作者感到奇怪了。后來警察竟然親自駕駛汽車 為他開道。而且警察并不知道他要去什么地方就把他帶到教堂來了。這是因為英美人一生三件大事都要在教堂做:其一是出生時在教堂洗禮,其二是結婚,其三則是 死亡。所以警察不問其由而將他帶到教堂是為了幫助他。所以答案是C。當警察講到We thought it was …er something else?時,顯然有個詞是不好意思講出口的,所以道出了文章的真實情況。這時不難對5題作出答復其答案是C。


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