設為首頁收藏本站內部教材

教師招考論壇

 找回密碼
 免費注冊

QQ登錄

只需一步,快速開始

無標題文檔 新澳门银座平台,新澳门银座网页版登录,新澳门银座客户端下载,新澳门银座下载
每日定期發布教師招牌資訊
總共7192條微博

2017年教師考友說

查看: 278|回復: 0
打印 上一主題 下一主題

[英語] 教師招聘考試:中小學英語教師基礎知識資料(11)

[復制鏈接]

4萬

主題

78

聽眾

49萬

積分

院士

Rank: 30Rank: 30Rank: 30Rank: 30Rank: 30Rank: 30

經驗
9742583 立方
財富
561085 美金
貢獻
48915 摩爾
在線時間
0 小時
閱讀權限
40
主題
48905
積分
491352
帖子
50005
跳轉到指定樓層
1
發表于 2018-8-11 11:31:46 |只看該作者 |倒序瀏覽
2017年最新教師招聘考試內部教材
教師招考二維碼

三、 常見習慣用語

(一) 知識概要

由于英語國家的語言習慣與中國的語言習慣有許多不同之處,所以造成了許多同學在做選擇或書寫,或與人交談中造成誤用中國方式來對英語的問句作解答。例如一 個小女孩十分好看,可愛,外國人見到時會講: You are so beautiful? 這時的答語應該是 Thank you? 如果外國人發現你的英語不錯,他們會講: Your English is very good? 這時中國人常常會說:不,我說的不好。這純是一種禮貌的答語,但是不符合英語習慣。它正確的答語應是 Thank you? 雖然交際英語有一些規律可講,但更重要的是學習外國的生活習慣,了解他們的文化背景,歷史淵源,這樣才能真正的學好一門外語。

(二) 正誤辨析

[誤] - What can I do for you?

- Yes, please help me?

[正] - What can I do for you?

- I'd like to buy a sweater?

[析] What can I do for you? 這一問語實際上用于的情景很多,要根據具體情況而定。如在商店中售貨員講這句話應譯為:您想要點什么?在其他場合也可以被譯為:我能為您做些什么?它的答語應是直接講出想讓對方提供的幫助。

[誤] - Which colour do you like?

- Sorry, I don't like?

[正] - Which colour do you like?

- I prefer blue?

[析] 由 which 來提問的問句是要回答具體的選擇,而不能泛指,泛泛的回答。如 Yes, I like it?

[誤] Do you like to come with us tonight?

[正] Would you like to come with us tonight?

[析] Do you like … 問的是對方的習慣,如: Do you like swimming? Do you like collecting stamps? 而 would you like … 則是一次性的邀請、提議。邀請的英語表達法還有如下幾種:

Shall we go? 我們走吧!

Let's go? 讓我們走吧!

How about having a cup of tea? 喝杯茶如何?

What about a cup of coffee? 喝杯咖啡如何?

Why not buy it? 為什么不買呢?

其肯定答語一般為Certainly, Yes, O.K. All right, With pleasure?

[誤] Sorry, I've kept you waiting?

Not at all?

[正] Sorry, I've kept you waiting?

Never mind?

[析] "介意不介意"這一問法與答語在中英文中有所不同。如:

- Do you mind my smoking here? - _________

A. Yes, do it please?

B. No, of course not?

C. Yes, take it please?

D. No, you can't take it?

這時正確的選擇應是B。 其意為:不介意,當然不。而A選項則自相矛盾了,它應譯為:是的我介意,請抽吧。而D選項是:不介意,你不能抽。當向對方爭求意見時,可以有以下問法:

Do you mind if I open the door?

Would you mind mailing the letter for me?

其答語如果是同意應為: Certainly not, not at all?

而不同意時應為 Yes, 或 I'm sorry?

[誤] What's that man?

He is Mike?

[正] What's that man?

He is a teacher?

[正] Who's that man?

He is Mike? (He is Mike's father?)

[析] 由 what 提問是問的職業,由 who 提問問的是姓名或身份。

[誤] - How much are they?

- Half a kilo, please?

[正] - How many bananas do you want?

- Half a kilo? Please?

[析] How much are they? 問的是價格而不是實際物品的多少。

[誤] I'm sorry, but is this the way to the park?

[正] Excuse me, but is this the way to the park?

[析] I'm sorry 是對已經做錯了的事向對方道歉時的開始語。而 Excuse me? 是在打擾對方之前表達歉意的話。

[誤] - Have a good time tonight!

- You are the same?

[正] - Have a good time tonight!

- The same to you?

[析] The same to you 是表達我也祝您有個愉快的夜晚,它是美語中的習慣用法。

[誤] - What's the problem?

- I've got a headache?

[正] What's wrong with you?

I've got a headache?

[析] What's wrong with you? 是詢問對方身體狀態如何,而 What's the problem?是問對方遇到了什么麻煩。

[誤] - Now, I'm back? Can I play?

- Perhaps? You'd better do your homework first?

[正] - Now, I'm back? Can I play?

- I'm afraid not? You'd better do your homework first?

[析] Perhaps 是表示對一種拿不準的事態的推論,如: Am I right? Perhaps?而 I'm afraid not? 則表達一種不同意的態度。 be afraid 的幾種用法有:

I'm afraid that you are right?

其后直接加賓語從句。

- Will you come to my birthday party?

- I'm afraid not? I have to go to see my father? He is in hospital?

其后+not,表示否定。

- Sorry, I don't want to go there alone, I'm afraid of the dog?

其后+名詞,表示對某人,某物的害怕。

Mary is afraid of making mistakes in the exam?

其后+ of + 動名詞,表示害怕做某事。

Mary is afraid to see the teacher because she didn't do well in the exam?

其后+ 不定式,表示不敢去做某事。

[誤] - How soon will you be ready?

- Two days?

[正] - How soon will you be ready?

- In two days?

[析] 此題關鍵是要根據情景,身臨其境,要注意的是對方問了什么,就應答什么。或答了什么就應問什么。 How soon 問的是"還有多久才能作完",這時要用 in two days, 即在兩小時之內即可以作完。如用 How long 提問,則答語可以用 two days。

[誤] - Would you mind if I have some time off?

- I don't mind?

- Monday and Tuesday of next week?

[正] - Would you mind if I have some time off?

- When exactly?

- Monday and Tuesday of next week?

[析] 有的對話是復雜的,稍有不慎就有可能選錯,而且英語中如選錯了答案是不容易找出錯來的。 I don't mind 是可以用來回答 Would you mind…這一提問的,但如仔細看一看則會發現我們要選用的不是陳述句而是疑問句。根據下面一句的答語來判定要用 when exactly? 什么時間,這樣才能與下句中具體的時間相符合。

[誤] Suppose your name is Tom? The phone rings and you pick it up? The first word you say will probably be "Who are you?"

[正] Suppose your name is Tom? The phone rings and you pick it up? The first word you say will probably be "Hello? This is Tom speaking?"

[析] 在英語學習中,習慣用法實際上在某種情況,或某種意義上講比語法更為重要。如果只從句子的角度上去分析,它們可能都是對的。比如,當你拿起電話時,如果你 想知道對方是誰,可以問"Who's that(speaking)?"但不要講"Who are you?"如果你想先介紹一下自己可以講"This is ×××× speaking"而不要講"I'm ××××"也不要講"My name is ×××××." 就語法而論,"Who are you?" "I'm ××××?""My name is ×××××?"并不錯,也是英語中可用的句子,但就打電話這一場合,就不宜用了。

[誤] - Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?

- I don't hope so?

[正] - Do you think it's going to rain over the weekend?

- I hope not?

[析] 由于初學者對實際英語口語中表達感情意愿的答語不熟悉,如在肯定答語中 I think so? I hope so? I believe so? 是相同的,但在否定句中卻常用 I don't think so? 但I don't believe so? 和 I don't hope so? 則意為:我不信此事和我不希望此事發生。而 I believe not? 和 I hope not? 則為:我想可能不會發生吧!

[誤] - Is anybody there?

- No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave?

[正] - Is everybody there?

- No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave?

[析] 許多學生在寫作和選擇答語或問句時總要語法在前,而不是習慣用語在先。所以總是要拘泥疑問句中的不定代詞,用 anybody。 但是Is anybody there? 在英語中為:這里有人嗎?而Is everybody there?為:全都到齊了嗎?所以首先要考慮的是其答語。 No, Bob and Tom have asked for leave?

[誤] - Your handwriting is very good!

- No, my handwriting is very poor?

[正] - Your handwriting is very good!

- Thank you?

[析] 中國人遇到別人稱贊,總是以謙遜為美德。但英美人則往往認為自信是美德。所以當別人夸獎你或贊美你時,就應說: Thank you? 又比如中國人見面時常講 Where are you going? 或 Have you had your breakfast yet?而英美人則認為你過多的干預別人的私生活了。而他們見面時往往問一些無關緊要的話,如: Hello! How are you going? (你過得怎樣) Morning! 等。而 good morning? 和 How do you do? 則被認為是較正規的問候語,在日常生活中則十分少見。

[誤] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: "Excuse me? I'll go first?"

[正] When you have had dinner with an American friend and want to leave you may say: "Excuse me? I have to go?"

[析] 這兩句答語都是正確的,其關鍵不是語法,而是習慣問題。如果在這樣的場合你講 I'll go first? 朋友們會迷惑不解,而 I have to go? 則表示由于外界的特殊原因而造成的你要離去,而你本人則十分不愿做此事。

[誤] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

- I'd like to, and I'm too busy?

[正] - Would you like to come to dinner tonight?

- I'd like to, but I'm too busy?

[析] I'm too busy? 與 I'd like to? 在意義上正好相反。所以要用轉折連詞。這里考查了對詞義合乎邏輯的表達能力。所以要強調語言環境,更要強調在語言的基礎上的詞語辨析。

[誤] - Where's Deter?

- Deter will come with us tonight but he isn't very sure yet?

[正] - Where's Deter?

- Deter may come with us tonight but he isn't very sure yet?

[析] 由于 but 所引出的句子可以看出 Deter 的來與不來是十分不確定的,所以應用 may 來表達一個不肯定的事件。

[誤] - Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine!

- Great? You look well too?

[正] - Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine!

- Thanks? You look well too?

[析] 要注意的是 Great 在口語中多表示驚嘆,而 Thanks 則表示感謝對方的稱贊。 所以對情景談話要有準確的判定,要根據情景,身臨其境,上下對照,周密思考,弄清場合,注意英美人的風俗習慣,注重語義上的詞語 辨析,并要進行大量的語言實踐練習,擴大實際交際能力。

(三) 例題解析

1?  - Would you like to have some rice?

- _________ .

A? Yes, I like B? Yes, please C? of course D? Yes, I have

[答案] B.

[析] 當對方對你發出邀請的問語時,如果你想接受則講 Yes, please? 如不想接受則用No, thanks?

2?  - Nice to see you?

- _________ .

A? Good morning B? Happy to meet you, too

C? Nice to see you, too D? Pleased to meet you, too

[答案] C.

[析] 雖然A、B、D三個選項都可以作為某種問候語的答語,但英語中問候語的答語多用重復對方的話,以表達同樣的心情。

3?  - Would you please give me some water?

- _________ .

A? Yes, I would B? Certainly C? No, thanks D? Yes, please

[答案] B.

[析] 當對方發出十分禮貌的請求幫助的問語時,一般的回答是肯定的。而Yes, please? 為"是的,您請做某事吧"。這一含意顯然不對。

4?  - Thank you very much for helping me?

- _________ .

A? You're welcome B? It doesn't matter

C? No need D? Don't say that

[答案] A.

[析] You're welcome 譯為中文為:不用謝。而 It doesn't matter 則為:沒關系。

5?  - Hello, Lucy? How are you?

- _________ And you?

A? Fine, thanks B? Yes, I am

C? Glad to meet you D? Good afternoon

[答案] A.

[析] 在正常交往中一定要避免所問非所答。所以對 How are you? 的答語應為"很好,謝謝!"

6?  - Help yourself to some meat?

- _________

A? It sounds nice. B? Yes, please.

C? Yes, Let's help each other. D? Thank you.

[答案] D.

[析] Help yourself to some meat. 你自己拿些肉吃吧。其意為主人勸客人不要客氣,像在家里一樣。

7?  - Oh, I am not feeling well? I've got a cold?

- _________

A? Fine, How are you? B? Never mind? Take care

C? Well, I 'm sure to get weel soon. D? I'm sorry to hear that?

[答案] D.

[析] 這是美國、英國的習慣用語,而B、 C則是中國人常講的答語。

8?  - Meimei you speak English very well?

- _________ .

A? No, I don't think so B? Thank you very much

C? Not good enough D? That's all right

[答案] B.

9?  - "Kate, could you answer the telephone, please?"

- _________ , Mum? I'll get it.

A? Yes, I could B? No, thanks

C? O?K? D? Yes, but I have no time

[答案] C.

[析] 要注意 could 用于口語中是為了講話的口氣委婉,但它不是過去時態,也不是助動詞,而應看作情態動詞。所以在答語中則不應這樣用。

10?  - Could you look after Polly for me while we're away?

- _________

A? No, thanks. B? With pleasure.

C? I'm not afraid. D? I'm sure you will.

[答案] B.

[析] With pleasure? 是英語中的一句十分客氣的答語,用在當對方因你的幫助或你的許諾向你道謝時,表達自己十分樂意為對方效力的口氣。

11?  - Hello! Could I speak to the headmaster, please?

- _________

A? Hold on, please. B? That's the headmaster, please.

C? Who are you ? please. D? Sorry? I'm not the headmaster.

[答案] A.

[析] hold on, please? 是指請對方等一等不要將電話放下的用語。如果要講我就是的話不能用 that, 而要用 this, 在電話用語中 that 指對方, this 指自己。

12?  - Happy birthday!

- _________

A? Thank you. B? The same to you.

C? Good luck. D? Congratulations.

[答案] A.

[析] the same to you 是同樣祝賀對方的意思,不能用于生日這一祝賀語,除非兩人的生日在同一天。

13?  - I'm sorry I don't know the way, either? You'd better ask that policeman for help??

- _________

A? Good night. B? That's nothing.

C? Very well. D? Thank you all the same.

[答案] D.

[析] 當向對方求助時,對方無能為力,這時的感謝語則為 Thank you all the same? 意為不管如何還是要謝謝你。

14?  - I fell and hurt my leg last week, So I can't do anything?

- _________ .

A? I'm sorry B? Don't worry

C? Good luck D? Bad luck

[答案] D.

[析] 如果用A則要用 I'm sorry to hear that?而不能單用 I'm sorry? 因I'm sorry 是向對方道歉。而 bad luck 為真是不幸啊。

15?  - _________

- I have got a cough?

A? What's your trouble? B? What have you got?

C? Why did you come here? D? Have you got a cough?

[答案] A.

[析] What's your trouble? 多用于問對方有什么問題、麻煩或得了什么病。這種用語還有 What's wrong with you?

16?  - Would you like to go shopping with me?

- _________

A? Yes, I'd love to. B? That's right.

C? Yes, please. D? Quite well.

[答案] A.

[析] 表示愿意作某事應講:I'd love to? I'd like to?

17?  - What's the weather like today!

- _________

A? It's nice for a walk. B? I like autumn best of all.

C? It will be fine tomorrow. D? It's rather cold today.

[答案] D.

[析] 本題要注意問的是什么,不要所問非所答。因問題是今天的天氣怎樣,所以只能選D

18?  - Is Jane in ,please? I want to speak to her?

- Sorry, she is out? You'd better _________ .

A? visit her in the office B? call her later

C? see her this afternoon D? speak to her yourself

[答案] B.

[析] call her later 晚些時候再來電話。

19?  - _________

- Very well, thank you, and you?

A? How do you do? B? Good morning?

C? How are you these days? D? How do you like English?

[答案] C.

[析] 本題是由答語來推斷問話,所以應熟悉英語的問答習慣: How do you do? 的答語應為 How do you do?

20?  - How is your mother?

- _________

A? She is old. B? She is no better than she was.

C? She is kind?hearted. D? She is in her forties.

[答案] B.

[析] How is your mother? 問的是你媽身體如何,而B選項則是"她不比以前強"。而其他三個選項則是所問非所答。

21?  - Thank you very much for your help?

- _________ .

A? You're welcome B? Please don't

C? There's no trouble D? No, no

[答案] A.

22?  Your uncle has taken you to the cinema? Afterwards you thank him?

He says " _________ ."

A? It was nothing B? I'm glad you enjoyed it

C? Don't say it D? No, needn't

[答案] B.

[析] 這是英語的答語,千萬不要選A,因它是中文習慣的答語。

23?  - Thank you for your good present?

- _________ .

A? It's not good B? No, no

C? My pleasure D? Never mind

[答案] C.

24?  When someone did a good deed for you, you should say _________ .

A.you are too good B.It's very kind of you C.you are very kind D.I'll thank you

[答案] B.

25?  - I am very sorry? I am late for dinner?

- _________ .

A.No, you aren't B.That's all right C.Yes, you are D.No, you don't

[答案] B.

[析] That's all right? 沒關系。

26?  - I'm sorry if I hurt you?

- _________ .

A? I'm sorry B? It's not true

C? It doesn't matter D? Don't say sorry

[答案] C.

27?  - I should have gone to see the exhibition with you?

- _________ .

A? I'm sorry B? What a pity

C? It doesn't matter to me D? That's terrible

[答案] B.

[析] What a pity. 真遺憾。第一句應為我真該和你一起去展覽會。

28?  - Help yourself to some fish?

- _________ .

A? You are very kind B? Yes, I'm helping myself

C? Thank you D? Yes, don't worry about me

[答案] C.

29?  - Are you ready?-______ .

A? I'm very sorry B? Try to be patient

C? Not yet, wait a minute D? Do you have the time, please?

[答案] C.

[析] not yet 意為還沒有完成。

30?  - Mum, I have passed the exam?

- _________ .

A? That's all right B? Congratulations

C? You are luck D? Good luck to you

[答案] B.

31?  - I think I have to leave? I hope we can get together again?

- _________ .

A? All right B? That's all right

C? O?K? D? I hope so, too

[答案] D.

32?  Must I wait till he comes back?  .

A? No, you needn't B? No, you mustn't

C? No, you may not D? No, you can't

[答案] A.

[析] must 提問表示必須這樣做嗎?而肯定句要用 must, 表示必須做,而否定句則要用 needn't 表示沒有必要做。

33?  - _________ I pay you the house rent right away?

- Yes, you have to do it?

A? Shall B? Way C? Must D? Have

[答案] C.

34?  - Don't you think this colour is too bright?

- _________

A? Yes, I agree. B? Yes, but I don't think so.

C? Yes, of course not. D? Yes, what's wrong?

[答案] A.

35?  - It was cold yesterday?

- _________ .

A? So was it B? So it was

C? I believe not so D? I believe not

[答案] B.

[析] 當答語只是重復對方講的話時,則不用倒裝。因 so it was即為:是的,天氣昨天很冷。而當講前面講的動作也適合于另一個人時,則要倒裝。如: I went to the cinema yesterday? So did I? 表示對方去了電影院,我也去了。

36?  - What do you think of the song?

- _________ .

A? I like music very much B? I like it too

C? With pleasure D? It sounds sweet

[答案] D.

[析] sound 在這里是系動詞,為聽起來很甜美。系動詞后要用形容詞,而不要用被動語態。

37?  Do you like tea or coffee? _________ .

A? Yes, I do B? Thank you

C? That's fine D? Either will do

[答案] D.

[析] either will do? 為兩者哪個都可以。

38?  I like your sweater very much? _________ .

A? No, it's ugly B? Sorry

C? Thank you D? You're welcome

[答案] C.

[析] 這是英美語言的習慣。

39?  He likes travelling by train?  _________ .

A? So do I B? I dos

C? I like so D? I like it, neither

[答案] A.

40?  - How do you like your school?

- _________ .

A? I like it very much B? It's very beautiful

C? I doesn't like it D? Very well

[答案] B.

[析] How do you like … 是問你們學校是怎樣值得你熱愛的。也就是為什么你熱愛你的學校。

41?  What a nice day!  _________

A? You're right. B? No, isn't it?

C? Yes, isn't it? D? Really?

[答案] C.

[析] Yes, isn't it? 是的,難道不是個好天氣嗎?

42?  - Hello, _________ ?

- This is Della speaking?

A? Who are you B? Are you Tom

C? Who is that D? Please tell me who are you

[答案] C.

[析] 電話用語中 that 指對方,而 this 指自己。

43?  -What's he like?

- _________ .

A? He likes English B? He is old

C? He is like a farmer D? He is tall and this

[答案] D.

[析] 要區分 What's he like? 如 What does he like? 前者為:他長得什么樣?而后者是:他喜歡什么。

44?  How did you do your job?

Not very well, _________ .

A? I'm sure B? I am afraid

C? Thank you D? I'm sorry

[答案] B.

[析] I am afraid 我恐怕是,我想是。

45?  - _________ your aunt?

-She is a principal of a middle school?

A? What does B? Where does

C? What is D? Whom is

[答案] C.

46?  - _________

- He is my boss?

A? What's the man? B? Who is the man?

C? How is the man? D? What does the man do?

[答案] B.

47?  - May I have your name?

- _________ .

A? No, no B? You're polite

C? Call me John D? It's kind of you

[答案] C.

48?  - Shall I make coffee for you?

- _________ .

A? Yes, thank you B? No, don't trouble

C? Don't trouble this, thank you D? No, don't make it

[答案] A.

49?  - Could you show me the way to Mr? Buown's office?

- _________ .

A? Not at all B? I'm sure

C? All right D? I can do it

[答案] C.

50?  - Shall we go swimming tomorrow afternoon?

- _________ .

A? It's very kind of you B? You are so thoughtful

C? That's a good idea D? Yes, we'll go

[答案] C.


分享到: QQ空間QQ空間 騰訊微博騰訊微博 騰訊朋友騰訊朋友
轉播轉播0 分享分享0 收藏收藏0

教師招考論壇 - 論壇版權1、本主題所有言論和圖片純屬會員個人意見,與本論壇立場無關
2、本站所有主題由該帖子作者發表,該帖子作者與教師招考論壇享有帖子相關版權
3、其他單位或個人使用、轉載或引用本文時必須同時征得該帖子作者和教師招考論壇的同意
4、帖子作者須承擔一切因本文發表而直接或間接導致的民事或刑事法律責任
5、本帖部分內容轉載自其它媒體,但并不代表本站贊同其觀點和對其真實性負責
6、如本帖侵犯到任何版權問題,請立即告知本站,本站將及時予與刪除并致以最深的歉意
7、教師招考論壇管理員和版主有權不事先通知發貼者而刪除本文

高通過率教師招考教材
您需要登錄后才可以回帖 登錄 | 免費注冊

關注教師招考微信公眾號

教師招考論壇 ( 閩ICP備10029304號 )  每日定期發布教師招牌資訊

GMT+8, 2018-9-19 19:59 , Processed in 0.390625 second(s), 31 queries .

Powered by 0590EDU管理團隊 X2.5

© 2001-2020 0590EDU教師招考論壇

回頂部