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2017年教師考友說

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[英語] 教師招聘考試:中小學英語教師基礎知識資料(10)

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發表于 2018-8-4 11:48:24 |只看該作者 |倒序瀏覽
2017年最新教師招聘考試內部教材
教師招考二維碼

二、 定 語 從 句

(一) 知識概要

定語從句并不屬于中考范圍,但由于作者在多年的教學中體會到,這一語法現象影響了許多學生自學英語。這些學生一般是成績較好的學生,想進行大量閱讀來提高 自己的英語水平,但總是碰到一些問題,百思不得其解。苦于自己的水平只限于初中水平,無法提高,但各種補習班又都是為一些水平較差的學生開設的,所以又投 師無門。為了解決這部分學生的學習困難,也為那些有志青年鋪平學習上的道路,特用這一節講述定語從句,不是從語法上講述,而是從閱讀理解方面去講述。可供 同學們在學習時參考。這會對你的英語學習起到事半功倍的作用。 對于形容詞我們已十分熟悉了,如: a good book, 形容詞 good 用來修飾書 book。 我們也可以用一個句子來修飾名詞,這種句子叫做形容詞性從句,它起修飾名詞的作用,又被叫做定語從句(The attributive clause)。但有一點不同的是這個從句不是像形容詞那樣放于名詞前,而是放在名詞之后。它所修飾的名詞又被叫作先行詞,如: Do you know the scientist who gave us the talk this afternoon? 這句中的主句是 Do you know the scientist? (你知道那位科學家嗎?)而 who gave us the talk this afternoon (他今天下午給我們作的報告。)是定語從句。所以這兩句話合為一體即是:你認識今天下午給我們作報告的那位科學家嗎?這里 scientist 叫作先行詞,而 who 叫作定語從句的引導詞。 who 在定語從句中起主語的作用, who 的數與它的先行詞相同。又如: You must do everything that I do? 這里先行詞是 everything, 而 that I do 是定語從句,此句應譯為:你必須作我所作的一切。 that 叫作定語從句的引導詞,在句中作 do 的賓語。 引導定語從句的引導詞有關系代詞: that, which, who, whom, whose 和關系副詞 when, where, why, how。不論關系代詞還是關系副詞,都應放于先行詞和定語從句之間,起聯系作用,但它們都要在定語從句中起語法作用,充當一個成份。如關系代詞在定語從句 中不是作主語便是作賓語,而關系副詞則是作狀語。我們先來看關系代詞的用法。① that 的先行詞可以是人也可以是物。如: A plane is a machine that can fly? 這里先行詞是 machine 而 that 是關系代詞,在定語從句中作主語。這句譯為:飛機是一種會飛的機器。又如: I like the book (that) you lent me yesterday? 這里先行詞是 book, 關系代詞用 that, 它在定語從句中作 lend (借)的賓語。要注意的是關系代詞在定語從句中作賓語時可以省略,即: I like the book you lent me yesterday?② which 關系代詞的先行詞只能是物。它在定語從句中作主語或賓語,如: The book shop is a shop which sells books? 這里 shop 是先行詞, which 在從句中作主語。又如: The book (which) I read last night was wonderful? 這里主句是 The book was wonderful? 而定語從句是修飾主句的主語 book, 即我昨晚讀的那本書,which 在定語從句中作 read 的賓語,可以省略。 ③ who, whom, whose? who 在定語從句中作主語, whom 是 who 的賓格,在定語從句中作賓語,而 whose 則是形容詞性物主代詞,在從句中作定語,如:The man who visited our school yesterday is an American friend? 昨天參觀我們學校的人是一位美國朋友。 Who 在定語從句中作主語。又如: Who's that woman (whom) you just talked to ? 你剛才與之談話的那個女人是誰?而 whom 作定語從句中介詞 to 的賓語,可以省略,而在現代英語中,句首的 whom 也常常可用 who代替。 This is our classmate, Mary, whose home is not far from our school? 這是我們的同學瑪麗,她的家離我們學校不遠。 為了便于理解,我們來看看是如何將兩句話并為一句話的。

1.  I saw the man.? He closed the door?

I saw the man who (that) closed the door?

2.  The girl is happy? She won the race?

The girl who won the race is happy?

3.  The students are from China? They sit in the front row?

The students who sit in the front row are from China?

(要注意的是先行詞是 students 則 who 的數也應看作復數。)

4.  We are studying sentences? They contain adjective dause?

We are studying sentences that (which) contain adjective dause?

5.  The taxi driver was friendly? He took me to the airport?

The taxi driver who took me to the airport was friendly?

6.  The book was good? I read it?

The book that I read was good?

The book I read was good?

7.  The people were very nice? We visited them yesterday?

The people we visited yesterday were very nice?

8.  The man called the police? His wallet was stolen?

The man whose wallet was stolen called the police?

9.  I come from a country? Its history goes back thousands of years?

I come from a country whose history goes back thousands of years?

10.  I have to call the man? I picked up his umbrella after the meeting?

I have to call the man whose umbrella I picked up after the meeting?

關系代詞 whom, which 在定語從句中作介詞賓語時,可以和介詞一起放于先行詞與定語從句之間,有時為了關系緊湊也可以將 whom 與 which 與先行詞緊挨著書寫,而將介詞置于定語從句的后面,如:

That was the room in which we had lived for ten years? 或可以寫作:

That was the room which we had lived in for ten years?

He was the man whom(who) you were looking for? 要注意的是此句的關系代詞 whom 可以用主格取代,而 look for 是短語動詞也不可將 for 放于定語從句之前。that 作關系代詞作介詞賓語時,不能緊跟介詞,而只能將介詞置于定語從句的后面。如: The man that we were talking about has come to our school? 這時不可用 about that … 請看下面例句:

1.  The meeting was interesting? I went to it?

The meeting that I went to was interesting?

2.  The man was very kind? I talked to him yesterday?

The man who I talked to yesterday was very kind?

3.  I must thank the people? I got a present from him?

I must thank the people who I got a present from?

4.  The picture was beautiful? She was looking at it?

The picture that (which) she was looking at was beautiful?

5.  The man is standing over there? I told you about him?

The man who I told you about is standing over there?

除關系代詞外,還有關系副詞, when, where, why, 其中 when用來指時間,在定語從句中作時間狀語。如: I never forget the day when I first came to the Great Wall? 而 where 則指地點,如: This is the house where the old man lives? 請看下面例句:

1.  The city was beautiful? We spent our vacation there?

The city where we spent our vacation was beautiful?

2.  That is the restaurant? I will meet you there?

That is the restaurant where I will meet you?

3.  The town is small? I grew up there?

The town where I grew up is small?

4.  That is the drawer? I keep my newpapers there?

That is the drawer where I keep my newspapers?

5.  Monday is the day? We will come then?

Monday is the day? When we will came?

6.  7∶05 is the time My plane arrives then?

7∶05 is the time when my plane arrives?

7.  1960 is the year? The revolution took place then?

1960 is the year when the revolution took place?

8.  July is the month? The weather is usually the hottest then?

July is the month when the weather is usually the hottest?

在定語從句中又可分為兩大類定語從句,即限制性定語從句和非限制性定語從句。

① 限制性定語從句是先行詞在意義上不可缺少的定語,如果去掉的話,主句的意思就不完整,意義就表述不明。這種句型一般定語從句緊接先行詞,如: I was the only person in my office who was invited?

② 非限制性定語從句。它與主句的關系不十分密切,只是對其附加說明,也就是講即便去掉定語從句,句意也不受影響,仍然清晰明了。這樣的定語從句要在它和 主句之間加一逗號分開。且關系代詞不引導這種非限制性定語從句,如: Abraham Lincoln, who led the United States through these years, was shot on April 14, 1865 at a theatre in washington? D. C. 又如:Galileo lived in the city of Pisa, where there is a leaning tower about 180 feet high?

(二) 正誤辨析

[誤] I won't tell you the name of the person who teach me English?

[正] I won't tell you the name of the person who teaches me English?

[析] 在定語從句中,關系代詞作主語時,從它本身看不出其數的形式,這時要由它的先行詞決定。這里who 應由 the person 單數決定,應該用單數謂語動詞。又如:I who am a student? want to find a spare time job?這里的 who 應與 I 是一致的,所以其謂語動詞應該用am。

[誤] We talked about the things and the people who we met during the Second World War?

[正] We talked about the things and the people that we met during the Second World War?

[析] 這里的關系代詞不要用 who, 因為其先行詞有兩個一個是 things (物),而另一個是people (人),這時既不可用 who, 又不可用 which, 因前者只能用于先行詞是人的情況下,而后者則用于先行詞是物的情況下,所以只能用 that, 因為它的先行詞既可以是人又可以是物。

[誤] The book, that I bought yesterday, was very good?

[正] The book, which I bought yesterday, was very good?

[析] 先行詞與定語從句被逗號分割開來時,即作為非限制性定語從句。在非限制性定語從句中 which, when, who, whom, where, when, whose 等都可以和限制性定語從句中的作用一樣,而獨有 that 不易用于非限制性定語從句。

[誤] The dictionary which I lent it yesterday is a very useful tool?

[正] The dictionary which I lent yesterday is a very useful tool?

[析] 關系代詞在定語從句中是要起語法作用的,它不是作主語就是作賓語。雖然在作賓語時它的位置由原來的賓語位置移到了句首,但它的作用依然存在,而且在原賓語位置上不能再出現賓語。

[誤] The teacher I want to learn English from is the one which comes from America

[正] The teacher I want to learn English from is the one who comes from America

[析] the one, anyone, those 作代詞并且是指某人、物時,其關系代詞不能用 which 應用 who。

[誤] This is the room in that the old man lives?

[正] This is the room in which the old man lives?

[正] This is the room which the old man lives in?

[正] This is the room that the old man lives in?

[析] that 不能緊跟在介詞后作介詞賓語,但如果介詞不前置仍放于句尾,則可用 that 作引導詞,而且可以省略。如: This is the room the old man lives in?

[誤] I can do everything which is good for you?

[正] I can do everything that is good for you?

[析] 在先行詞是 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one 等不定代詞時,雖然它們指的是物體,但不要用 which 而用 that 作定語從句的引導詞。

[誤] The only thing which the students can do is studying hard?

[正] The only thing that the students can do is studying hard?

[析] 在先行詞前有 only, any, few, little, no, all, one of 等詞修飾時,雖然先行詞指的是物,也不要用 which 作關系代詞,而要用 that。

[誤] This is the first American film which I've ever seen?

[正] This is the first American film that I've ever seen?

[析] 在先行詞是序數詞,或由序數詞修飾時,其關系代詞不可用 which? 這樣的用法還有在形容詞最高級修飾的先行詞之后,如: This is the best book that I have ever seen

[誤] He is from Africa, that we can see from the colour of the skin?

[正] He is from Africa, as we can see from the colour of the skin?

[析] 當 as 或 which 引導非限制性定語從句時,它可能沒有明確的先行詞,它們所指代的是前面整個句子。如例題應譯為他是從非洲來這個事情是可以從其膚色上看出的。



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