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2017年教師考友說

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[英語] 教師招聘考試:中小學英語教師基礎知識資料(9)

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發表于 2018-7-28 15:56:59 |只看該作者 |倒序瀏覽
2017年最新教師招聘考試內部教材
教師招考二維碼

第二篇 句法

一、 主 要 句 式

(一) 知識概要

初中所學的句型一般要分為陳述句、疑問句、祈使句和感嘆句。 陳述句中有肯定句與否定句之分。其中可以分為以下五種:① 主語+不及物動詞。如:I arrived at six last night.② 主語+及物動詞+賓語,如:I bought a good English?Chinese Dictionary yesterday.③ 主語+及物動詞+間接賓語+直接賓語,如:Please tell me a story before I go to bed. 這樣可加雙賓語的句子有buy,tell, give, ask, pass, teach.④ 主語+及物動詞+賓語+賓語補足語,如:I found it impossible to do it. Please keep the classroom clean and tidy.⑤ 主語+系動詞+表語,如:Tom is an American boy. The grass turned green in spring.在初中常見的句型中有There be…句型,表示存在某種事物,如:There is a map on the wall?其be動詞的形式要與其后面相近的那個名詞相一致。要注意的是這種句型加入助動詞后,也要保持be動詞,不要換用have,如:There is going to be a meeting tomorrow. 

在句子結構中要注意主謂一致的問題,即句子的主語與謂語動詞要相呼應。要注意的有如下幾點:① 用and連接兩個主語時一般應視為復數,但如一人身兼兩職時則要用單數謂語動詞形式,如:A singer and dancer is coming to our party. a singer and dancer 既歌唱又可舞的演員。而 a singer and a dancer 則要譯為:一位歌唱家和一位舞蹈家。②有些以 s 結尾的名詞謂語動詞要用單數,如: The news is good (news 為不可數名詞)。③ 有量詞時應按量詞的數量計算;如: This pair of glasses is good? My glasses are broken. ④有些形單卻意為復數的名詞,如: People are coming here? 這樣的詞還有 Police, 如果要講一個警察時,應講 a policeman。 兩個警察為 two policemen。 又如 a policewoman, two policewomen? ⑤ 所有不定代詞 each, either, neither, one, the other, nobody, nothing, anyone, anything, someone, something … 要作為單數如: Someone is waiting for you? 

在并列句中表示聯合關系的連詞有: and not only … but also, neither … nor, either … or? 如: My sister and my parents are going to the cinema。

表示轉折關系的并列連詞有: but 和 yet, 如: She is a good student, but she didn't pass the final exam. 又如: I think the news is strange, yet it is true

表示選擇關系的連詞有:or, either … or,如: Hurry up, or you will be late for school?

表示因果關系的并列連詞有: for, so 如: They studied very hard, so they all passed the exam

在初中范圍復合句中主要有狀語從句和賓語從句(名詞性從句)兩種,而定語從句(形容詞性從句)要在高中講述,為了使同學閱讀文章方便,我們將 在下面另一章予以介紹。

我們首先來看賓語從句。① 在及物動詞的后面可以接一個名詞來充當賓語,如: I knew the man, 而這時也可以用一個句子來充當賓語,如: I knew that he was a good man? 這時賓語從句的連接詞有 that, (that 只在從句中起聯接作用,不在句中充當語法成分,既不是主語也不是賓語,所以在口語中常常被省略。如: I am sure (that) she has passed the exam? ②if, whether 它們在賓語從句中只起連接作用,不起語法作用,當作是否講。從句中有 or not 結構時,要用 whether, 如: I ask him if (whether) he has had his lunch? I asks him whether he has had his lunch or not?  ③ what 它在賓語從句中除了作連接詞外,還要作主語或賓語成份,如: I don't understand what you said? (what 作 said 的賓語)。又如: I asked him what made him sick (what 在賓語從句中作主語)。④ who,它也和what一樣,在句中除作連接詞外,可以充當句中的成份,如:I know who she is looking for? ⑤ whose 如: I want to know whose book this is? ⑥ which 如: Do you know which book is mine?

在連接詞中還有4個常用的連接副詞,① how 它的應用最廣,如: how much, how many, how long, how soon, how old …。如: How much does it cost? ② when 它只是連接時間狀語,如: Please tell me when the meeting will begin? ③ where 它連接地點狀語,如: Where are you from? ④ why 它要連接的是原因狀語從句,如: The teacher asked why Tom didn't come to school.

在考試中常見到的考點是: 賓語從句的時態與主句時態的呼應問題。① 主句謂語動詞如果是現在時或將來時,賓語從句的時態可以是任何所需要的時態, 如: I know he didn't come. 我知道他沒來。 I know he will come tomorrow? 我知道他明天來。I know he has gone to London? 我知道他已去倫敦了。 ② 主句中的謂語動詞若是過去時,賓語從句也要用過去時態中的某一種。比如: 一般過去時,過去進行時,過去將來時,過去完成時。除了在表達宇宙中的客觀真理時,不能用現在時態。如: I wanted to know when he would come? The teacher told me the earth moves around the sun

狀語從句主要有時間狀語從句,其連接詞有:after, before, when, as, as soon as, until (till), while, since, by?其中較難掌握的有以下幾點: ① until (till) 直到,在用 until 表達時間狀語的句子中,主句中的動詞是要十分小心去選擇。如動詞是持續性動詞,它要用肯定句,如: I studied hard until 12 o'clock last night. 如果動詞是瞬間截止性動詞,則要用否定句,如: He didn't go to bed until his mother came back? ?② 由?since, for, by, before 來引導的時間狀語從句。 since 引導的時間狀語是動作的開始時間,如: I have studied English since 1990? 而由 by 引導的時間狀語通常是動作的結束時間,如: I had learned 25 English songs by the end of last term? 而before 則多用于完成時, ago 則多用于一般過去時,如: He had finished his work before twelve yesterday? I left my hometown two years ago? ③ 在狀語從句中用一般現在時或一般過去時表示將來。它們可能是主句用一般將來時,從句用一般現在時,如: If it rains, they won't go to the park on Sunday? 也可以主句是一般過去時,從句用一般過去進行時,如: He said if it rained the next day he would not go to the park?

考試中常見的考點有:要學生區別是條件、時間狀語從句還是賓語從句,因在賓語從句中該用什么時態用什么時態,如: I want to know if he will come here tomorrow? 在賓語從句中的條件狀語從句與主句的關系,如: I want to know if it rains he will come here tomorrow

在原因狀語從句中主要是① because, 應譯為"因為"。它表達的因果關系最強,如: He didn't pass the exam because he didn't study hard? ② since 應譯為"既然",如: Since you were ill yesterday? I left some notes on your desk? ③ as 應譯為"由于",如: As it is too hot we'd better go swimming? since 與 as 所表達的因果關系遠比 because 弱得多。而 for 表達的因果關系最弱。它不能用于句首,如: He studies hard, for he wants to go to college? 

在比較狀語從句中有同級比較 as … as, 如: This book is as good as that one? 要注意的有兩點:① as … as 中間要用原級而不是比較級。② 用形容詞還是副詞,如: Mary writes as carefully as Tom? 而其否定句為 not as (so) … as, 如: They didn't work so hard as we did, 而不同級比較用比較級加 than, 如: He is younger than I am? 要注意的是表示"越來越"這一概念時有兩個句型:① 比較級+and+比較級,如: The days are getting longer and longer? The little girl is becoming more and more beautiful? ② 定冠詞 the + 比較級+ the + 比較級,如: The harder you study, the more you can learn? 方式狀語中要注意的是as (連詞)與 like (介詞)的區別。 as 作為連詞其后接從句,如: Please do it as I did it? 但后面的句子常作省略,如: Please do it as I? 而 like 是介詞,其后要接的是賓語,如: Please do it like me

結果和目的狀語從句主要有 so … that, so that, in order that等幾種用法。① so … that?用在單數可數名詞前,so + 形容詞 + a + 名詞 + that,如: She is so beautiful a girl that everyone likes her? 或用 such + a + 形容詞 + 名詞 + that, 如: She is such a beautiful girl that everyone likes her? ② 在不可數名詞或可數名詞復數前只能用 such, 如: It is such good weather we want to go for a picnic? 又如: They are such good players that they should win the game. ③ 在much, many, few, little 之前只能用so, 如: I have so little money that I can't buy it? ④ so … that 之間只有形容詞時,則不能用 such, 如: It is so good that I want to buy? ⑤ so that 其后接從句,如: I got up earlier so that I could catch the first bus?

(二) 正誤辨析

[誤] The stories in that book was written many years ago?

[正] The stories in that book were written many years ago.

[析] 作主語的名詞、代詞或不定式、動名詞,它們往往要帶有修飾詞,這些詞可能是形容詞,也可能是短語,但謂語動詞還是要取決于這個主語的數,要記住的是一個名詞不可能在同一句中作兩個不同的語法成份,如: book 作了 of 的介詞賓語則不可能再作主語了。

[誤] To read many books are good for you?

[正] To read many books is good for you?

[析] 不定式作主語應該看作單數主語。

[誤] What he said are right?

[正] What he said is right?

[析] 從句作主語一定要按單數主語看待。

[正] The rich is not always happy?

[誤] The rich are not always happy?

[析] 形容詞+定冠詞表示一類人,謂語動詞應用復數,如: The young are very interested in study and sports?

[誤] The school master and writer are coming?

[正] The school master and writer is coming?

[析] 本句應譯為:校長兼作家就要來了。而 The school master and the writer are coming? 則要譯為:校長和一個作家要來了。在英語表達法中確實有 The girl and boy are playing on the grass? 這應譯為:一個女孩,一個男孩在操場上玩。因為不可能這樣兩個概念作用在一個人身上。又如: the husband and wife? 夫妻二人。

[誤] You or she go to get some water for us?

[正] You or she goes to get some water for us?

[析] 由 or 連接的兩個主語應以離謂語動詞近的那一個計算其數。這樣的用法還有 either … or,neither … nor, not only … but also 也有人稱作"就近原則"。

[誤] The teacher with a lot of students come into the classroom?

[正] The teacher with a lot of students comes into the classroom?

[析] 真正的主語是 the teacher, 而 with 短語是伴隨狀態,不影響主語的數。

[誤] My glasses is broken?

[正] My glasses are broken?

[誤] This pair of glasses are good?

[正] This pair of glasses is good?

[誤] These kinds of butter is good.

[正] These kinds of butter are good?

[析] 英語中有些名詞只有復數形式,如: glasses 眼鏡, shorts 短褲等。如沒有量詞在前時,要用復數謂語動詞,但有了量詞之后則要按量詞的單復數計算。

[誤] One of the boys are going to take part in the match?

[正] One of the boys is going to take part in the match?

[析] One of 結構應以 one 來計算主語的數。

[誤] Half of the work are done?

[正] Half of the work is done?

[誤] Half of the books is read?

[正] Half of the books are read?

[析] 在小于1的數量詞作主語時,如: 2 3 ,80%,0.35… + of +名詞,這時主語的數應按 of 后面的名詞計算。如果名詞是不可數名詞或可數名詞單數,則謂語動詞要用單數,如名詞是復數則要用復數謂語動詞。

[誤] Each sides are full of trees?

[正] Each side is full of trees?

[誤] Both side is full of trees?

[正] Both sides are full of trees?

[析] each, either 其后都要加單數名詞,而 both 后要加復數名詞。 如: each, either, another, little, a little, much等作主語時,謂語動詞全部要用單數形式。

[誤] The boys each has an apple?

[正] The boys each have an apple?

[析] each 作同位語時,不影響句子的主語。

[誤] Everyone of us has a ticket for the concert?

[正] Every one of us has a ticket for the concert?

[析] everyone, someone, everybody … 在作主語時都不能加 of 結構。

[誤] Girls like dancing very much, but few likes playing football?

[正] Girls like dancing very much, but few like playing football?

[析] few 雖然含意上是"幾乎沒有",但作主語時仍要當作復數。

[誤] The number of the workers in that factory are two hundred?

[正] The number of the workers in that factory is two hundred?

[析] the number of 意為:某某的數字是…… 如: the number of students 學生人數, the number of players 運動員人數。不論數字如何都應看作單數。而 a number of 與 many 意思相同,其后加可數名詞復數,謂語動詞用復數形式。如: A number of students are playing on the grass?

[誤] The rest of the students is here?

[正] The rest of the students are here?

[誤] The rest of the work are done?

[正] The rest of the work is done?

[析] the rest of 的用法與2/3,一半,80%+ of 的結構一致, of 后面為可數名詞復數時用復數謂語動詞,為不可數名詞或可數名詞單數時用單數謂語動詞。這樣用法還有 lots of, a lot of, plenty of。

[誤] The news in today's newspaper are not bad?

[正] The news in today's newspaper is not bad?

[析] 有些以 s 結尾的名詞要用作不可數名詞,它們是:news, physics, mathematics, thanks, …

[誤] The Chinese is kind and friendly?

[正] The Chinese are kind and friendly?

[析] Chinese 作為中文來講是單數名詞,但作為中國人講是單復同形的名詞。如: one Chinese, two Chinese … 而 The Chinese = The people of China 要用復數謂語動詞。

[誤] This dictionary is too expensive for me? Ten dollars are a big sum for me

[正] This dictionary is too expensive for me? Ten dollars is a big sum for me

[析] 表示一段時間,一筆金錢,一段距離,都應看作單數名詞。

[誤] Who are going to take part in our football match?

[正] Who is going to take part in our football match?

[析] 用 who 提問時,習慣上用單數謂語動詞,但 which 則要視其情況而定,如: which are better these shoeses or those shoes? 又如: which is better this one or that one?

[誤] What a hot weather it is!

[誤] How hot the weather it is!

[正] What hot weather it is!

[正] How hot the weather is!

[析] 感嘆句是用來表達說話人的喜怒哀樂的感情。它由 what 與 how 作句子的開始,判定是用 what 還是用 how 的最好辦法是將它們換為陳述句,比如: What the hot weather it is! 應轉換為: It is the hot weather? 那么句子的起點是單詞 it。 再來看感嘆句中 it 前有不可數名詞 weather, 則只能用 what。 再看第二句 How hot the weather is! 轉為陳述句時為: The weather is hot?這時句子的開始單詞為 the weather, 再來看感嘆句在 the weather 前只有形容詞,所以應用 how。 至于是用 what a 還是 what 要看名詞的具體情況而定,單數可數名詞加 what a 其余的加用 what。

[誤] We have to sing this, have we?

[誤] We have to sing this, haven't we?

[正] We have to sing this, don't we?

[析] 在反意疑問句中除了標準的一些常規外,有一些例外:

Let's go home, shall we?

Let us go home, will you?

She had to leave, didn't she?

Do your homework at once, will you?

There is not much good news in today's newspaper, is there?

Neither of them are right, are they?

I think he will come to the party won't he?

think 后的賓語從句,與其他賓語從句不一樣,在初中只有這樣一個較特殊的詞。這樣的句子的反意疑問句的主語要用賓語從句中的主語,其助動詞要用賓語從句的助動 詞,而肯定還是否定要看主句謂語動詞而定,如: I don't think he is coming to our party, is he?

[誤] I want to know where does he live?

[正] I want to know where he lives?

[析] 賓語從句中一律要用陳述語序,而不用疑問語序。

[誤] - I haven't got a ticket for the football match??

- Nor I have?

[正] - I haven't got a ticket for the football match??

- Nor (Neither) have I?

[析] nor, neither 用在簡答否定句中時要采用倒裝語序。在肯定句的簡答句中則要用so, 如: I do my homework very quickly, So does Mary?

[誤] Look! Here the bus comes!

[正] Look! Here comes the bus!

[誤] Look! Here comes he!

[正] Look! Here he comes?

[析] 在 there, here 打頭的句子中,如果主語是名詞,則要采用倒裝語序;如果是人稱代詞則用一般語序。

[誤] Do you want Mary to go to the cinema with us??

No, I don't hope so?

[正] Do you want Mary to go to the cinema with us??

No, I hope not?

[析] 我不這樣想,可用 I don't think so? 但 hope 的否定簡答句只能用 I hope not? 這是習慣用法。但這兩個詞的肯定簡答句形是一樣的,如: I think so. I hope so?

[誤] That is difficult for us to learn English well?

[正] It is difficult for us to learn English well?

[析] It 這里的語法作用是形式主語,而真正的主語是后面的不定式。形式主語和形式賓語都要用 it 而不能用 that, 如: I think it difficult to learn English well? it 在這句中是 think 的形式賓語。

(三) 例題解析

1?  There ___ a pencil?box on the desk.

A .is B. are C. has D. have

[答案] A.

[析] There be 句形中的 be 動詞要看其后面離它最近的名詞而定,如: There are two books and a pencil on the desk? 但卻可以講 There is a pencil and two books on the desk?

2?  Could you tell me ___ ?

A? Mrs King where lives B? where does Mrs King live

C? where Mrs King lives D? Mrs King lives where

[答案] C.

[析] 賓語從句中的疑問句要用陳述語序。

3?  Your brother came to see you, ___ ?

A? does he B? doesn't he C? did he D? didn't he

[答案] D.

[析] 前句是肯定句,后面反意疑問句要用否定句,同時 came 為過去時態,所以應用 didn't he

4?  It's getting cloudy, ___ ?

A? does' it B? doesn't it C? is it D? isn't it

[答案] D.

[析] 要區分's 是 has 還是 is, 這里由 getting 得出's 是is。

5?  ___ keep me waiting so long.

A? Not B? Won't C? Don't D? Not to

[答案] C.

[析] Don't + 動詞原形為祈始句的否定句。

6?  Mr Green hasn't been to Beijing, ___ ?

A? has he B? hasn't he C? did he D? didn't he

[答案] A.

[析] 此句 has 是助動詞與過去分詞構成現在完成時態。

7?  You have your lunch at school, ___ ?

A? have you B? haven't you C? do you D? don't you

[答案] D.

[析] 這里的 have 是實意動詞"吃",而不是助動詞。

8?  ___ sunny day! Let's go out for a walk.

A? How a B? How C? What a D? What

[答案] C.

[析] 這個感嘆句是個省略句,其真實的句子應為 What a sunny day it is!

9?  - Can you tell me ___ ? - Sure? She's a nurse?

A? where is your sister B? where your sister is

C? what is your sister D? what your sister is

[答案] D.

[析] who 問的是姓名,如: Who is he? He is Smith? 或 He is my father? What 問的是職業,如: What is he? He is a teacher?

10?  John likes listening to the radio, ___ ?

A? does he B? doesn't he C? doesn't John D? does Johe

[答案] B.

[析] 當名詞作主語時,反意疑問句應用代詞。

11?  Neither you nor I ___ on the team.

A? are B? were C? am D? is

[答案] C.

[析] 由 neither … nor … 作連接詞作主語時,其謂語動詞要與相臨近的那個主語相呼應。

12?  ___ delicious food! I'd like some more.

A? what a B? How a C? What D? How

[答案] C.

[析] 因 food 為不可數名詞。

13?  ___ there a cat under the chair?

A? Are B? Is C? Has D? Have

[答案] B.

[析] 這是 there be 句型的疑問句。

14?  Could you tell me ___ ?

A? when the train will arrive B? when the train arrived

C? when did the train arrive D? when does the train arrives

[答案] A.

[析] could 用于現在時疑問句表達了口氣的委婉,并不是過去時態。且賓語從句要用陳述語句。

15?  - ___ bad weather!

- Yes, But it's going to be fine soon, I think?

A? How B? What a C? What an D? What

[答案] D.

[析] weather 為不可數名詞。

16?  - Could you tell me ___ ?

- Yes, They ___ to the library?

A? where are the twins, have been

B? where were the twins, have been

C? where the twins are, have gone

D? where the twins were, have gone

[答案] C.

[析] have been to 是去過什么地方,而現在回來了。 have gone to 是到某地去了,人現在不在這里。

17?  Go and ___ the TV quickly? The volleyball match will begin right away.

A? turn off B? turn down C? turn up D? turn on

[答案] D.

[析] 這是個祈使句,它由 and 連接兩個動詞。注意詞組搭配的不同含義。

18?  Let's go for some tea, ___ ?

A? shall we B? will we C? do we D? don't we

[答案] A.

[析] Let's go …, shall we? Let us go …, will you?這是兩個特殊的反意疑問句。

19?  Joan's short, ___ ?

A? wasn't she B? hasn't she C? isn't she D? doesn't she

[答案] C.

[析] 在此句中應視's為is,而不是 has 或 was。

20?  I don't know ___ to read the word.

A? which B? what C? whose D? how

[答案] D.

[析] 因不定式 to read 中的 read 是及物動詞,已有自己的賓語 the word, 所以應用疑問副詞 how。

21?  He didn't go to school, ___ he was ill.

A? for B? but C? and D? so

[答案] A.

[析] 這里是表示因果的關系,從句表示原因,所以用 for,放于句尾,且常常前面有一個逗號。so 引起的是結果狀語從句,如: He was only twelve, so he couldn't join the army?

22?  The young woman can hardly ride a bike, ___ she?

A? doesn't B? does C? can't D? can

[答案] D.

[析] hardly 為否定詞,所以應視此句為否定句。其后的反意疑問句應用肯定句。

23?  Tom never goes to the cinema on Sundays, ___ ?

A? does he B? doesn't he C? isn't he D? is he

[答案] A.

[析] never 也是否定詞,所以應將句子看作否定句。

24?  Mother said to him, "Don't ___ on football."

A? spend too much time B? to spend too much time

C? spend too many time D? to spend too many time

[答案] A.

[析] time 作為"時間"講為不可數名詞,應用 much 來修飾。當作"次數"講是可數名詞,如 three times 三次,而 Don't … 這一句是祈使句的否定句。

25?  Mr White, together with some Japanese friends, ___ visit our school this afternoon.

A? are going to B? is going to C? have D? has

[答案] B.

[析] 句子的主語是Mr? White, 而together with … 是伴隨狀況,不影響句子的主語。

26?  There is little water in the glass, ___ ?

A? is it B? is there C? isn't it D? isn't there

[答案] B.

[析] 這是 there be 句型的反意疑問句。

27?  Ampere was thinking about a maths problem, ___ ?

A? didn't he B? wasn't he C? did he D? is he

[答案] B.

[析] 這是進行時態的反意疑問句。

28?  She had a good time yesterday, ___ she ?

A? wasn't B? didn't C? hasn't D? isn't

[答案] B.

[析] had 這里是實意動詞而不是助動詞。

29?  We'll make ___ for you in the front of the car.

A? a room B? room C? rooms D? some rooms

[答案] B.

[析] room 此處為不可數名詞,意為"地方,空間"。

30?  Neither she nor I ___ to the Great wall before.

A? has gone B? have gone C? have been D? has been

[答案] C.

[析] 由neither … nor 連接兩個主語時,其謂語動詞應與相臨近的那個主語相呼應。

31?  Help me collect these books, ___ ?

A? are you B? will you C? do you D? shall you

[答案] B.

[析] 祈使句的反意疑問句應用 will you, 而Let's go 例外,其反意疑問句為 shall we?

32?  The number of deer, mountain lions and wild roses

___ change much if people leave things as they are.

A? don't B? doesn't C? isn't D? didn't

[答案] B.

[析] the number of 為"……的數量、數目",所以謂語動詞用單數形式。而 a number of 要加復數名詞,其謂語動詞也用復數。

33?  She's had breakfast, ___ ?

A? is she B? isn't she C? hasn't she D? has she

[答案] C.

[析] 這里的's應視為 has?

34?  I wonder ___ .

A? whose bicycle is it B? it is whose bicycle

C? is it whose bicycle D? whose bicycle it is

[答案] D.

[析] wonder 后的賓語從句應用陳述語序。

35?  It is good for us ___ morning exercises.

A? do B? to do C? did D? done

[答案] B.

[析] 這里的 it 是形式主語,而真正的主語是不定式 to do …

36?  Peter has sports very often, ___ ?

A? does, Peter B? doesn't he C? doesn't Peter D? does he

[答案] B.

[析] has 這里是實意動詞,而主語為名詞時其反意疑問句中的主語要用代詞。

37?  Mr? Black said, "Jenny, don't be late tomorrow?"

Mr? Black told Jenny ___ .

A? don't be late tomorrow       B? didn't be late tomorrow

C? not be late next morning        D? not to be late the next day

[答案] D.

[析] tell 一般要加雙賓語,其間接賓語是 Jenny, 直接賓語是不定式。而這里用的是不定式的否定形式。

38?  Li Mei read the newspaper to the granny, ___ ?

A? does she B? didn't she C? did she D? wasn't she

[答案] B.

[析] read這里是過去時態,因其主語是第三人稱單數,而 read 并未加 s 所以是過去時態。(read 的過去時與過去分詞都是 read,只不過讀音不同)


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