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2017年教師考友說

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[英語] 教師招聘考試:中小學英語教師基礎知識資料(8)

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發表于 2018-7-21 11:49:17 |只看該作者 |倒序瀏覽
2017年最新教師招聘考試內部教材
教師招考二維碼

八、 動 詞

(一) 知識概要

動詞在語言中是必不可少的一部分。它的語法現象也較多,但在初中范圍主要有以下幾方面問題。① 時態:初中范圍主要有一般現在時,一般過去時,現在完成時,過去完成時,將來時與過去將來時六種時態。② 語態:主動語態與被動語態。③ 助動詞和情態動詞。④ 非謂語動詞,也就是不定式,動名詞及現在分詞的用法。 時態主要掌握以下幾種時態的應用要點和習慣用法。

1? 一般現在時:主要有以下三方面,① 用來表示狀態,特征或不受時間限制的客觀存在和真理。如:Matter exists in three states物質有三態。又如:The earth moves around the sun?  ② 表示習慣性和經常發生的動作,如:I often go to bed at 9∶30? ③ 在時間、條件等狀語從句中表示將來要發生的動作,如:As soon as I get there I'll telephone you.

2? 一般過去時:① 主要用于表達過去時間內發生的動作或存在的狀態,如:I was ill last week? ② 過去經常發生的動作或習慣性動作,如:I used to get up at six.

3? 一般將來時:用于表示將要發生的動作,其構成方式① 用will (shall)+動詞原形來表達將來在某一時間內要發生,或經常、將要發生的動作或狀態,如:School will begin on Sepember 1st? ② 用be going to+動詞原形,用來表示不久將要發生或打算去作的動作。如:I'm  going to swim this afternoon? ③ be+現在分詞,也就是用某些動詞的現在進行時表示將來,如:I'm  coming。這些動詞只限于:go, come, leave, start, move, sail, arrive, reach, get to等動詞。④ 在狀語從句中用一般現在時表示將來。

4? 現在進行時:用于表示現在正在進行的動作,如:What are you doing now?要注意的是表示狀態,情感的某些詞沒有現在進行時,這些動詞有:like, have (有),love, know, understand, remember, forget, see, hear, smell, taste, feel, wish hope, expect…

5? 過去將來時:用來表達從過去某時間點上看將要發生的動作,如: He told me he would come to my party?

6? 現在完成時與過去完成時:現在完成時的兩個用處是:① 用來表達在過去開始的動作持續到現在,如:I've studied English for two years? ② 用來表達過去發生的事但它影響到現在,如:I haven't had my breakfast. so I'm hungry now? 現在完成時與過去完成時的區別在于動作的截止時間,現在完成時所表達的動作截止于現在,而過去完成時所表達的動作截止于過去。如:I haven't seen my old teacher for a long time? 我好久未見到我過去的老師了。是指到目前截止。如果加上一句話,則將變為過去完成時,如:Yesterday I saw my old teacher. I hadn't seen him for a long time. 因為我好久未見他這一情況截止于昨天。還要注意的一個問題是截止性動詞可以有完成時,但不能與表示一段時間的狀語連用,如:When I got to school, the class had begun? 如果一定要講開始幾分鐘了則要換用表示狀態,或延續性動詞,如:When I got to school, the class had been on for five minutes? 語態:英語中只有主動語態與被動語態之分。主動語態,句子中的主語是動作的執行者,如:I broke the window? 而被動語態句子中的主語是主動語態句子中的賓語,如:The window was broken by me? 被動語態主要用于,動作的執行者不明確,或沒有必要說出來,如:The New building was built last week? 關鍵要注意的是在主動語態中有省略不定式符號to的動詞,在被動語態要還原,如: 主動語態 I saw him come in.?被動語態 He was seen to come in.  助動詞和情態動詞:助動詞本身沒有詞義,它只不過與實義動詞一起構成謂語動詞,形成了時態、語態、構成了疑問句,否定句,以及用來加強語氣。而情態動詞 則表達一種可能、必要、允許、愿望、猜測……的意圖、傾向。也用來表示語氣的委婉和祝愿。初中階段主要有:can, could, may, might, will, would, must (have to), shall, should。 最后要談論的是非謂語動詞,非謂語動詞分為不定式,和動詞的ing形式,(即現在分詞和動名詞)。雖然在初中范圍,這一項不是語法重點, 但還是要花一定時間去學習,為的是打下良好的基礎。為進一步學習提供良好的條件。不定式在句中可以作主語、賓語、表語。如:To see is to believe.(百聞不如一見) He want to see a film? 還可以作補足語,如:He wants me to leave.也可以作狀語,如:I come here to learn English. 動名詞也可以起到上述作用,如:Seeing is believing. I like swimming very much. 而現在分詞多用于作定語、補足語、狀語,如: The girl driving a car is her sister.(定語) Did you notice his hand shaking?(賓語補足語)

Hearing the noise, we stopped talking.(狀語)

(二) 正誤辨析

[誤] She laid down and soon fell asleep.

[正] She lay down and soon fell asleep.

[析] 考試中常出現的是易混動詞lay放,lie躺,lie說謊。它們的過去時、過去分詞和現在分詞變化如下:

lay (放) laid, laid, laying (及物動詞)

lie (躺) lay, lain, lying (不及物動詞)

lie (說謊) lied, lied, lying

[誤] Please rise your hand.

[正] Please raise your hand.

[析] rise 是不及物動詞,其后不能接賓語,如:The sun rises in the east.而raise是及物動詞。

[誤] I like to swim very much, but I don't like swimming this afternoon.

[正] I like swimming very much, but I don't like to swim this afternoon.

[析] like作為"喜歡"講時,可以接動名詞也可以接不定式,但接動名詞時多表達一種習慣性動作。而接不定式則側重于表達一次性、特殊性的動作。  但要注意的是like 與would連用時則一定要接不定式,如:Would you like to go with me?  再有一點要注意的是,like作為介詞"像"講時,只能用分詞作其賓語。

[誤] Stop! Did you listen to a strange voice?

[正] Stop! Did you hear a strange voice?

[析] hear的側重點是聽到、聽見什么,而listen to 的側重點為聽的傾向,如:listen! Do you hear someone calling help?這樣的詞還有look與see。它們的側重點也不同,look重于"看"的傾向,而see重于看見沒看見。

[誤] Did you watch some film recently?

[正] Did you see some film recently?

[析] 英語中see 與 watch 各有不同的用處,see用于看電影、劇目,而watch用作看電視和看球賽。

[誤] Look. A beautiful lamp hanged from the ceiling.

[正] Look. A beautiful lamp hung from the ceiling.

[析] hang有兩個含義,① "掛",它的過去時與過去分詞是hung, hung;② "絞刑",這時它是規則動詞,其過去式與過去分詞則為hanged, hanged。

[誤] How long can I borrow this book?

[正] How long can I keep this book?

[析] "借"在英文中有三個詞,① 借入,即borrow,如:May I borrow some books from the library?② 借出,如:I can lend my bike to you.③ 借多久要用keep, 因為borrow與lend都是截止性動詞,而keep是延續性動詞。如 How long can I keep it?

[誤] We have won your class.

[正] We have beaten your class.

[析] win是及物動詞,其后面的賓語應是比賽、戰爭、獎品、獎金。而beat的賓語,應是人、隊、班級等等,如:We won the game.

[誤] I left my key.

[正] I forgot my key.

[正] I left my key at home.

[析] leave是"丟下",其后一定要接地點狀語,而forget其后不要接地點狀語。

[誤] Oh! It's raining outside. Please bring the rain coat with you.

[正] Oh! It's raining outside. Please take this rain coat with you.

[析] bring為"帶來"如:Next time bring your little sister here.而take為"帶走",fetch為"去某處取什么回來",如:Please fetch some coffee for us?  要熟記的是在初中課文中與take有關的詞組,如:  take away 拿走 take back 收回 take down 取下 take off 脫下 take…out 拿出 take place 發生  take hold of 拿住 take part in 參加 take a seat 坐下 take one's place 替代 take a look 看看 take one's turn 輪流  take a message 捎信 take care of 照看 take it easy 別著急 take one's time 慢慢來 take one's temperature 測量體溫

[誤] The policeman reached his gun.

[正] The policeman reached for his gun.

[析] reach作"到達"講時是及物動詞,如:I reached the hotel at 8∶30?但作"伸手去拿",則要用reach for something。作為"到達"講時還有arrive (in+大地方)(at+較小的地方)和get to.要注意的是與get有關的詞組有:  get back 回來 get in 收割 get into 進入 get off 下車  get on 上車 get out 出去 get up 起床 get to 到達  get ready for=be ready for   get on well with 與人相處融洽  get 加比較級為變得如何,例如:  get colder and colder.

[誤] This dictionary spent me five dollars.

[正] This dictionary cost me five dollars.

[析] 英文中的"花費"有4個spend, cost, take 和 pay,其中spend 與pay所在句中的主語應為人,如:I spent two hours in doing my homework. I paid five dallars for the book.而cost與take的主語則是事物,如:It takes me two years to finish this book.

[誤] In summer I always sleep with the windows opened.

[正] In summer I always sleep with the windows open.

[正] I always sleep with the windows closed.

[析] 要注意open是動詞也是形容詞,而close則要用其過去分詞作形容詞。

[誤] Please wait a minute. I'm having on my clothes.

[正] Please wait a minute. I'm putting on my clothes.

[析] 英語中的穿衣服要分狀態,是什么樣的穿著打扮,還是穿衣服的動作兩類動詞。表示穿著狀態的詞有have on, wear,在用法上have on不宜用進行時態,它多用一般時態,如:She has on a new school dress. 而wear則多用進行時來表示狀態,如:She is wearing a new sweater.在表示動作的詞中put on是常用的一詞。dress用作動詞當"穿衣"講時其后賓語不應接衣物,而要接人,如:My children were very young they couldn't dress themselves.在表示穿著狀態時用其過去分詞當形容詞,如:He is dressed in white.

[誤] My computer can't begin. Could you find someone to help me?

[正] My computer can't start. Could you find someone to help me?

[析] begin與start均可指"開始",而且常常可以互換,如:School begins (starts) at 8 a. m. 但是在兩種情況下不宜用begin 而要用start, ① 當作機器開動、發動講,如:My car can't start. There must be something wrong with it.② 作為"旅途開始"講,如:We should have to start early. There was a lot of traffic on the road.

[誤] I'm very glad because I have founded my lost key.

[正] I'm very glad because I have found my lost key.

[析] find是不規則動詞,它的過去式和過去分詞是found, found,而found又是另外一詞"建立",它是規則動詞,其過去式與過去分詞是founded founded, 如:The People's Republic of China was founded in 1949.

[誤] Please. Let's speak in English.

[正] Please. Let's speak English.

[正] Please. Let's talk in English.

[誤] Can you speak it English?

[正] Can you say it in English?

[析] 英文中"說"有4個常用詞say, tell, speak, talk.其中不及物動詞有speak和talk,如:I want to talk with you.We are talking about the new film.而speak其后接語言時是及物動詞,其他情況是不及物動詞。say 與tell是及物動詞,其中tell常用雙賓語,如:Tell us a story.但用于講實話或謊話時也用單賓語。如: Tell the truth.

[誤] Can you say Japanese from Chinese?

[正] Can you tell Japanese from Chinese?

[析] tell…from為固定詞組,即分辨兩者的不同。

[誤] Excuse me, did I step on your foot?

[正] Oh, sorry, did I step on your foot?

[析] excuse me用于未打擾對方前,以提醒對方注意的用語,而sorry則是由于自己已做的事向對方道歉。

[誤] Would you care for to swim with us?

[正] Would you care to swim with us?

[析] care for 后接不定式時,要省略for,或換用名詞,如:Would you care for a cup of tea. care for 作"照顧"講時與look after相同。在初中階段學習與for有關的詞組有:

ask for 請求 call for 接人,請人 care for 關心

go in for 從事 answer for 負責 look for 尋找

wait for 等待 send for 請人 pay for 付款

search for 尋找 leave for 去某地 prepare for 準備

thank somebody for something 為某事向某人道謝。

[誤] Are you understanding it? Yes, I got to it.

[正] Do you understand it? Yes, I got it.

[析] understand這一詞沒有進行時態,如同感觀動詞love、hate… I got it 是美語,即I understood it。要記住get 作為"到達"講時是不及物動詞,如:I'll get to the school at 8 a. m.  初中范圍常用與to有關的動詞詞組如下:  belong to 屬于 come to 蘇醒 point to (at) 指著 get to 到達 refer to 談到 stick to 堅持 lead to 導致 turn to 翻到 look forward to 期望 agree to 同意

[誤] The meat has gone badly.

[正] The meat has gone bad.

[析] 英語中go, get, become, turn作為轉變時,其后接形容詞,這時這些動詞應被看作系動詞。

[誤] The teacher said the earth moved around the sun.

[正] The teacher said the earth moves around the sun.

[析] 如果主句的謂語動詞是現在時,其賓語從句可以是任何時態。如果是過去時,則賓語從句中的時態應與之呼應。但地球圍繞太陽轉是不隨時間而變化的客觀事實,所以還應用一般現在時態來表達。

[誤] I'll come to see you as soon as I'll be back.

[正] I'll come to see you as soon as I am back.

[析] 在狀語從句中要用一般時來表示將來,如:I should tell him when he came back.

[誤] I want to know whether you come to my party tomorrow or not.

[正] I want to know whether you will come to my party tomorrow or not.

[析] 在賓語從句中則要用將來時表示將來的動作。要注意的是如果賓語從句中仍有狀語從句時,依然要用一般現在時表示將來,如:I want to know if it rains tomorrow you'll come here or not.

[誤] What did you do at eight last night?

[正] What were you doing at eight last night?

[析] 在描述過去某一具體時刻的動作或從某時到某時一段時間內正在進行的動作要用過去進行時,如:I was washing clothes from eight till noon last Sunday?

[誤] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them, because I have seen it before.

[正] My classmates came to see a film yesterday. I didn't go with them because I had seen it before.

[析] 現在完成時與過去完成時的相同之處是其動作均開始于過去的某一點,它的差別在于該動作是截止到什么時候。如動作截止到現在用現在完成時;如動作截止到過 去,用過去完成時。例如:I've learnt English for three years.(到現在為止)又如:Before I went to college, I had learnt English for three years. (動作截止到上大學那時,即截止于過去)

[誤] I'm feeling well now.

[正] I feel well now.

[析] 瞬間動詞有些無進行時態,它們是: 表示思維狀態的詞:believe, feel, forget, imagine, know, mean, need, prefer, remember, understand, want  表示感情的動詞:care, like, do like, love, mind, hate, fear  表示狀態的詞:belong, own  感觀動詞: feel, hear, see, smell, taste

[誤] When have you done this work?

[正] When did you do this work?

[析] when提問的是一個時間點不可用于完成時態的問句中。

[誤] This is our new English teacher. He has gone to many foreign countries.

[正] This is our new English teacher. He has been to many foreign countries.

[析] have gone to 是到某地去了,此人現在不在這里。have been to 是到過某地,現在此人在說話現場。

[誤] I have borrowed this book for two weeks.

[正] I have kept this book for two weeks.

[析] 截止性動詞有完成時態,但不可和與表達一段時間的時間狀語連用。如:When I got to the cinema the film had begun.  但要講When I got to the cinema the film had be on for five minutes 這樣的用法還有buy, join, die, 如:I bought this book yesterday.我昨天買的這本書。  I have had this book for two days. 這本書我已買了兩天了。

I joined the club two years ago.兩年前我加入了這個俱樂部。

I have been in this club for two years. 我加入這個俱樂部已兩年了。

My father died five years ago. 我父親是5年前去世的。

My father has been dead for five years. 我父親已去世5年了。

[誤] Have you understood the lessons?

[正] Do you understand the lessons?

[析] 有些動詞不易用完成時態,它們是understand, think, believe, know (知道)

[誤] It was said that the Second World War had broken out in 1939.

[誤] It was said that the Second World War was broken out in 1939.

[析] 在講述過去的歷史事件時,總要用過去時而不要用完成時,而且happen, break out, take place作為發生講時均沒有被動語態。

[誤] When I walked along the street. I happened to meet an old friend.

[正] When I was walking along the street I happened to meet an old friend.

[析] 在一個長動作發生或進行的過程中,某一突然事件發生,這時長動作應用進行時(現在進行時或過去進行時),而突發性動作用一般時(一般現在時或一般過去 時),如:When my father is reading a newspaper the telephone rings.

[誤] Please buy a book for me.

[正] Please buy me a book.

[正] Please buy a book to me.

[析] 在接雙賓語的動詞后面的兩個賓語,一個是直接賓語,一個是間接賓語,如:Buy me a book中me是間接賓語,而a book是直接賓語。如果將直接賓語前置,其后應加to,如: Tell me a story. Tell a story to me. Give me a book. Give a book to me.

[誤] He was seen come into the book store.

[正] He was seen to come into the book store.

[析] 在主動語態中,有時可以加不帶to的不定式作賓語,如:I saw him come into the book store.但如果變為被動語態時,則要將省略的to還原。當然這些動詞還可以加動名詞作賓語,如: I saw him coming into the book store, 如變為被動語態時,則沒有變化。如:He was seen coming into the book store.

[誤] How nice the book is! Is it sold well?

[正] How nice the book is! Does it sell well?

[析] 有些動詞可以表示一種動作,但也可以用來表示某種性質,表示動作時可用被動語態,在表示性質時則不可用被動語態。如:

This book sells well. 這本書暢銷。

This car drives easily. 這車容易駕駛。

These clothes wash easily. 這些衣服好洗。

在作上述表達時,不要用被動語態。而要講:

This kind of book was sold out. (這種書賣完了)

These clothes were washed by the washing machine. 這時要用被動語態,因為它描述的是具體動作。

[誤] Must I do it now?

No. you mustn't.

[正] Must I do it now?No, you needn't.

[析] need用在疑問句和否定句中常用作情態動詞,其后接不帶to的不定式。由must提問的問句作答語時,如是肯定的要用must,否定的要用needn't,即為沒有必要。在肯定句中常用作實意動詞,如:I need to wait for my boy.

[誤] Is this book yours?

Yes, It's.

[正] Is this book yours?

Yes, It is.

[析] 在肯定的回答中不要用縮寫形式,而在否定的回答中可以用縮寫形式,如:No. It isn't.

[誤] I'll have my bike repair tomorrow.

[正] I'll have my bike repaired tomorrow.

[析] have+人+動詞原形或現在分詞意為:讓某人作某事,如:My father had me to learn how to drive, 或My father had me doing my homework from morning till might?  have+物+動詞的過去分詞為某件事被別人完成。如:I have my hair cut.我去理發。而不是自己理發。如果講我想自己作某事,則用I want to repair my bike myself.

[誤] I'll get my brother repair the bike for you.

[正] I'll get my brother to repair the bike for you.

[析] have與get的用法有相同之處,也有不同之處。相同之處,如:have something done, 也可用get something done, 或have (get) somebody doing something但不同之處在于have somebody do something 在用get時則要用get somebody to do something。

[誤] I have to study on Saturday but I haven't to study a full day?

[正] I have to study on Saturday, but I don't have to study a full day.

[析] have to 不得不,而don't have to 為其否定式。

[誤] Is Tom in the classroom? No. He mustn't be in the classroom, because I saw him talking with our teacher in the office just now.

[正] Is Tom in the classroom? No. He can't be in the classroom because I saw him talking with our teacher in the office just now.

[析] must 加動詞原形表達一種比較肯定的推測,而表示否定的推測則要用can't。

[誤] My grandpa is over eighty but he is able to read without glasses.

[正] My grandpa is over eighty, but he can read without glasses.

[析] can (could) 多用于表達客觀的事實,主觀能力,而be able to 則多用于表達主觀的意愿。

[誤] She doesn't answer the doorbell.? She should be asleep.

[正] She doesn't answer the doorbell. ? She must be asleep?

[析] should 用于現在時態的句子中應譯為"應該",如:You should do your homework right away. 而 must加動詞原形表示一種推測。

[誤] Do you like to go with us?

[正] Would you like to go with us?

[析] Do you like…問的是習慣,如:Do you like swimming? 而would you like是一次性的邀請。

[誤] I am used to get up early in the morning.

[正] I am used to getting up early in the morning.

[析] used to 共有三種用法,① 表示過去的習慣,如:I used to live with my parents.   ② 表示過去的習慣延續到現在,如:I am used to swimming in the river. ③ 用于被動語態,如:  Oil is used to cook?

[誤] To play with the children are very interesting.

[正] To play with the children is very interesting.

[析] 不定式作主語時,應視為單數主語,特別是兩個不定式用and作連詞作主語時,如指的是一件事也應用單數謂語動詞。如:To get up early and to go to sleep early is good for your health.

[誤] He asked me do my homework alone.

[正] He asked me to do my homework alone.

[析] 某些動詞要求不定式作其賓語或賓語補足語,它們是:ask somebody to do something 要求某人做某事。 tell somebody to do something 告訴某人做某事 還有prepare 準備, decide 決定, happen to 碰巧, seem 似乎。

[誤] he told me to drive a car.

[正] He told me how to drive a car.

[析] 要學會疑問詞加不定式的用法,特別要注意的是what是疑問代詞,而how是疑問副詞。如:I want to know what to do. (我想知道干什么)。 I want to know how to do it. (我想知道如何去作)。 要注意的是how to do it 中的it是不可少的,因how是疑問副詞,不能作及物動詞的賓語,而what是疑問代詞,可做do的賓語,所以what to do 后不要加it。

[誤] I am very glad meeting you.

[正] I am very glad to meet you.

[析] 許多形容詞后加不定式,這樣用時形容詞多是用來描述人物的感情、態度,如:glad, happy, pleased, lucky, sorry, sad, upset, ready, careful, surprised。

[誤] I'm too glad for seeing you.

[正] I'm too glad to see you.

[析] 這句話不能按照too…to的句型翻譯為:我太高興了以至于不想見你。而應譯為:見到你太高興了。又如:She is too honest to tell the truth? 應譯為:她很誠實,不會不講實話。

[誤] Tom is too young not to join the army.

[正] Tom is too young to join the army.

[析] 這是too…to的正常用法,太如何如何以至于不能如何。

[誤] I went to the hospital for seeing my old friend. He was ill in hospital.

[正] I went to the hospital to see my old friend. He was ill in hospital.

[析] 在句中表示某動作的目的時,要用不定式而不能用for加動名詞。

[誤] Could you help me to find a chair to sit.

[正] Could you help me to find a chair to sit on.

[析] 當不定式作后置定語時,將不定式放于名詞之后。如果不定式中的動詞是不及物動詞,則其后面的介詞不要省略。如:I sat on the chair. 這樣的用法還有:I want to find a room to live in. I want to find a pen to write with.

[誤] When mother was about leaving the baby cried suddenly.

[正] When mother was about to leave the baby cried suddenly.

[析] be about to 是表達較近的即將發生的動作,可用來表示將來時,或按計劃、安排的事。

[誤] This work is difficult to be done.

[正] This work is difficult to do.

[析] 在不定式作賓語時,下列情況常用主動語態表示被動。① 句子的主語即是不定式動作的執行者,如:I have a lot of letters to write. ② 句中的賓語是不定式中動作的執行者,如:Could you find me a job to do? ③ 在形容詞之后的不定式,如:English is difficult to learn.

[誤] Would you like to see a film with us? Yes, I'd love.

[正] Would you like to see a film with us?Yes, I'd love to.

[析] 在口語簡答語中要將不定式符號保留,如:  I had to (不得不作) I'm going to (打算作) I used to (過去習慣作)  I'd love to (喜歡作) I hope to (希望作某事) I'll be glad to (高興作)

[誤] Did you see someone to do this work for me?

[正] Did you see someone do this work for me?

[析] 在感觀動詞之后常接不帶to的不定式。這些詞是see, look at, watch, hear, listen to, feel, notice。

[誤] He was seen prepare this car.

[正] He was seen to prepare this car.

[析] 在被動語態中要將主動語態句中省去的不定式還原回來。

[誤] Please? Let my child to try it again.

[正] Please? Let my child try it again.

[析] 在make, have, let后加不帶to的不定式作賓語補足語。

[誤] Why not to do it again?

[正] Why not do it again?

[析] Why not, you'd better 后接不帶to的不定式,如:You'd better go.但要注意的是它的否定式是You'd better not go.

[誤] When he heard the news he couldn't help to cry.

[正] When he heard the news he couldn't help crying.

[析] can't help+現在分詞表示情不自禁作某事。

[誤] In autumn, the street is always covered with falling leaves.

[正] In autumn, the street is always covered with fallen leaves.

[析] 現在分詞作定語有正在的含義,如:falling leave 正下落的葉子。而過去分詞作定語fallen leaves是落地的葉子。過去分詞含有已經完成的意思。

[誤] Do you hear someone sing in the office?

[正] Do you hear someone singing in the office?

[析] 感觀動詞可用不帶to的不定式來作賓語補足語,表達一個動作的全過程或已結束的動作,而用現在分詞表示一個正在進行中的動作。

[誤] I want to shop some food for supper.

[正] I want to buy some food for supper.

[正] I want to go shopping.

[析] shop作買東西講時,要用go shopping,其后不要加所購買的東西。這樣的用法還有:  go boating 劃船 go sailing 航海 go skating 滑冰 go shooting 射擊 go dancing 去跳舞 go fishing 釣魚 go swimming 去游泳…… 不要用錯,也不要改為其他式,因為這是習慣用法。

[誤] When the teacher came into the classroom, the students stopped to talk.

[正] When the teacher came into the classroom. the students stopped talking.

[析] stop to do something 是停下來去做某事,而stop doing something 則是停止做某事。

[誤] I didn't remember closing the door, so the thief came into the room directly.

[正] I didn't remember to close the door, so the thief came into the room directly.

[析] remember后接不定式是記著去做某事,即該動作并沒有完成。而remember 后接動名詞則表明該動作已經作完了。如: Do remember to turn off the light, before you leave. 即在你離開前記著去關燈。而關燈的動作并沒有做。I remember meeting you somewhere. 我記得在某處見過你。而相見一事已經作完了。相同用法還有forget。

[誤] When I finished to do this work I would go to play football.

[正] When I finished doing this work I would go to play football.

[析] 在英語中有些動詞后要接動名詞作賓語。在初中范圍主要有兩個動詞finish和enjoy, 千萬不要與like相比。因為like作動詞"喜歡"用時,其后接動名詞表示習慣性動作,接不定式表示一次性特殊的動作,而would you like后面則一定要用不定式。

[誤] When he finished his homework, he went on playing the football.

[正] When he finished his homework, he went on to play football.

[析] go on to do something 是做完一件事緊跟著做另一件事。而go on doing something 是在做一件事的過程中被打斷后接著再繼續做這件事。

[誤] He's busy to prepare his lessons.

[正] He's busy preparing his lessons.

[析] be busy 后加doing 而不能接不定式。

(三) 例題解析

1? Mr Zhang asked me ___ the words again.

A. read

B. reads

C. to read

D. reading

[答案] C.

[析] ask somebody to do something 要求某人作某事。

2? You ___ play on the road. It's dangerous.

A. mustn't

B. may

C. can

D. must

[答案] A.

[析] must 用于否定句表示禁止做某事。

3? Mr Brown ___ in Beijing since 1993.

A. work

B. works

C. worked

D. has worked

[答案] D.

[析] 句中有since引導的時間狀語,因此句中要用完成時態。

4? I ___ a letter when my mother came in.

A. write

B. am writing

C. was writing

D. will write

[答案] C.

[析] 當母親進來時是一個瞬時的動作,而寫信是一個長動作,所以寫信這個動作應用過去進行時態,表示在寫信過程中發生的另一個短動作。

5? It's not an important party, you needn't ___ .

A. pay for it

B. wear it out

C. try it out

D. dress up for it

[答案] D.  [析] pay for-為某物,某人付款,wear out-穿壞,磨破,tryout-選拔,挑選,而dress up-梳妝打扮。

6? Can I ___ a bike from him?

A. lend

B. return

C. give

D. borrow

[答案] D.

[析] borrow something from…為向某人某處借某物。而lend, return, give后面的介詞應用to。

7? - Must I stay at home?

- No, you ___ .

A. mustn't

B. needn't

C. may not

D. can not

[答案] B.

[析] needn't 為"沒有必要必須做某事",而mustn't為"禁止做",can not為"不能做"。根據題意是:你不一定待在家里。

8? - How long have you ___ here?

- About two months.

A. been

B. gone

C. come

D. arrived

[答案] A.

[析] have been here是個狀態,可以與后面的長時間狀語連接,而其他三個動詞都是瞬間動詞。

9? Stamps ___ by people for sending letters.

A. use

B. using

C. used

D. are used

[答案] D.

[析] 這里是被動語態,意為郵票被人們用來發信。

10? The radio says Tianjin will be ___ tomorrow.

A. rains

B. rain

C. rained

D. rainy

[答案] D.

[析] rainy為形容詞作表語。

11? If you don't know this word, ___ in the dictionary.

A. look for it

B. look at it

C. look after it

D. look it up

[答案] D.

[析] look up 查字典,與look有關的詞組有:

look about 四周環視

look after 照顧

look around 周圍,四處看

look at 看

look back 回顧

look for 尋找

look forward to 期待

look out 當心

look like 看上去像

12? My father told me ___ play on the street.

A. not

B. to not

C. not to

D. did not

[答案] C.

[析] 不定式的否定式是not to do something.

13? There is going to ___ an English party this evening.

A. be

B. has

C. have

D. is

[答案] A.

[析] 這里是there be 無生命的"有"加助動詞的句型,即there will be,而沒有there have 的句型。

14? There ___ no bus stop here last year.

A. is

B. was

C. are

D. were

[答案] B.

[析] last year為去年,所以用過去時。而there be 句型的單復數要看be動詞之后離之最近的名詞是單數還是復數。如:There is a pen and two pencils on the desk.

15? Our school will hold a sports meeting if it ___ tomorrow.

A. isn't rain

B. rains

C. won't rain

D. doesn't rain

[答案] D.

[析] 在狀語從句中應用一般時態來表示將來。

16? Bikes mustn't ___ everywhere.

A. be put

B. be putted

C. put

D. putting

[答案] A.

[析] 這里是被動語態。與put有關的詞組如下:

put away 放好 put off 推遲 put on 穿上 put out 撲滅 put down 放下

17? Neither Li Lei nor Han Meimei ___ Harbin.

A. have been to

B. has been to

C. have gone to

D. has gone to

[答案] B.

[析] has been to 是去過某處。

18? It's cold today you'd better ___ more coats.

A. put on

B. take off

C. to put on

D. to take off

[答案] A.

[析] 'd better 其后加不帶to的不定式,而put on 為"穿上"。

19? Henry ___ a birthday card for Sam yesterday.

A. has bought

B. buys

C. bought

D. will buy

[答案] C.

[析] 因句中的yesterday為表達過去的時間狀語,所以應用過去時態。

20? When I got to the factory, the workers ___ about the filim.

A. are talking

B. talked

C. were talking

D. have talked

[答案] C.

[析] 狀語從句中所用的動詞為過去時,則主句中也要與之呼應。而工人們在談論電影為一長時間的動作,所以要用過去進行時。

21? No hurry, please ___ your time.

A. take

B. bring

C. carry

D. catch

[答案] A.

[析] take one's time 慢慢來別著急。

22? I enjoy ___ the light music.

A. to listen to

B. listening to

C. hearing

D. to hear

[答案] B.

[析] enjoy 與 finish其后只能接動名詞作賓語補足語。

23? Please ___ as soon as you get there.

A. ring me up

B. ring up me

C. wake me up

D. wake up me

[答案] A.

[析] ring up打電話,而wake up喚醒。英文中有很多動詞詞組如其賓語是代詞時,一定要放在動詞與介詞之間。

24? When I ___ , I want to be a teacher.

A. grows up

B. grow up

C. shall grow

D. grew up

[答案] B.

[析] grow up 長大。而狀語從句要用現在時表示將來,即使主句也用的是一般現在時,但它含有將來之意。

25? I called him and he ___ to have a talk with me.

A. stop

B. stops

C. stoped

D. stopped

[答案] D.

[析] 這是由and連接的兩個并列句,所以時態應保持一致。

26? - Would you please ___ me an evaser, Lucy?

- Certainly. Here you are.

A. borrow

B. lend

C. borrowed

D. lent

[答案] B.

[析] would you please其后接不帶to的不定式即動詞原形,而borrow為"借入"而lend為"借出"。

27? Trees ___ in spring.

A. plant

B. were planted

C. should be planted

D. should plant

[答案] C.

[析] should用于一般現在時態中表示應該,而此句又是被動語態。

28? - Where's your father?

- He ___ to Paris.

A. go

B. goes

C. went

D. has gone

[答案] D.

[析] has gone 是已去某處了,不在這里了。所以強調過去的動作影響到現在。

29? - Must I finish my homework in class now?

- No, you ___ . You can do it at home.

A. mustn't

B. may not

C. needn't

D. can

[答案] C.

[析] needn't表示沒有必要一定要這樣做。由must提問,肯定句用must,否定句用needn't.

30? Thank you very much for ___ your book ___ me.

A. lending, to

B. lent, to

C. borrow, from

D. borrowing,from

[答案] A.

[析] for是介詞,要用動名詞作介詞賓語。

31? The Great Green Wall will stop the wind from ___ the earth away.

A. blowing

B. blow

C. blows

D. to blow

[答案] A.

[析] stop…from doing something. 阻止某人或某物作某事。

32? The students will go to the West Hill Farm by bike, if it ___ fine tomorrow.

A. will be

B. is

C. shall be

D. was

[答案] B.

33? Our teacher always tells us ___ in the street. It's too dangerous.

A. don't play

B. not to play

C. to play

D. not play

[答案] B.

[析] 不定式的否定式為not to do。

34? English is a useful language. It ___ widely in the world.

A. is spoken

B. was spoken

C. can speak

D. will speak

[答案] A.

[析] 本句為被動語態。

35? The kite is flying high in the sky. It ___ a bird.

A. looks at

B. looks like

C. looks for

D. looks after

[答案] B.

[析] look like 像……,其中like 為介詞。

36? - Look! What's Wang Ping doing over there?

- She ___ under a big tree.

A. sings

B. sang

C. has sung

D. is singing

[答案] D.

37? You ___ see a doctor. You've got a bad cold.

A. will

B. are going to

C. had better

D. could

[答案] C.

[析] had better 最好,意為一種真心的勸告。

38? Your radio is too loud. Would you please ___ ?

A. turn down it

B. turn it down

C. to turn down it

D. to turn it down

[答案] B.

[析] would you please 后面加動詞原形。

39? Could you tell me if it ___ tomorrow?

A. rains

B. is raining

C. will rain

D. rain

[答案] C.

[析] if從句是賓語從句,而不是狀語從句。所以還是要用將來時,而不能用一般現在時表示將來。

40? Suddenly one of the bags ___ the truck and landed in the middle of the road.

A. fell out

B. fell down

C. fell off

D. will be

[答案] C.

[析] fall off 掉落,與off有關的詞組有  see off 送行 give off 散發 shut off 關閉 kick off 踢掉 turn off 關閉 get off 下車 jump off 跳下 show of 炫耀 take off 脫下 pay off 付清

41? He ___ at this school since two years ago.

A. was

B. has been

C. is

D. will be

[答案] B.

[析] since引導的時間狀語應與完成時相呼應。

42? She doesn't know ___ .

A. when to do

B. what to do

C. how to do

D. where to do

[答案] B.

[析] when, how, where均為疑問副詞,而what為疑問代詞,又因do是及物動詞需要賓語。如用疑問副詞時應為when to do it, how to do it, where to do it.

43? Must older people ___ to politely.

A. speak

B. spoken

C. be spoke

D. be spoken

[答案] D.

[析] 這句話的主動語態應為People must speak politely to older people?對年齡較大的人講話應有禮貌。

44? Teachers usually ask their students ___ loudly in class.

A. to speak

B. speak

C. speaks

D. spoke

[答案] A.

[析] ask somebody to do something 要求某人作某事。

45? - Where is Mr Zhang?

- Look! He ___ on a big machine over there.

A. works

B. worked

C. is working

D. has worked

[答案] C.

[析] 由look, liston等詞開始的句子一般要用現在進行時態。

46? There's a football match. Please ___ the TV at once. Let's watch together.

A. turn on

B. take off

C. turn off

D. go on

[答案] A.

[析] turn on 打開。與turn有關的詞組有: turn against 背叛 turn on 打開 turn +顏色 變為某種顏色 turn off 關閉 turn over 翻轉 turn to 翻到某頁 turn into 變為 turn up 向上翻

47? Please tell me where ___ have our picnic tomorrow.

A. we will

B. will we

C. will

D. will you

[答案] A.

[析] where 引導的從句是賓語從句,而不是狀語從句。

48? We ___ English for three years already. And we can speak a little English now.

A. learn

B. have learned

C. has learned

D. will learn

[答案] B.

[析] for+表示一段長度的時間詞,應與完成時相呼應。

49? At last, Lin Feng made the baby ___ and begin to laugh.

A. stop to cry

B. stop crying

C. to stop to cry

D. to stop crying

[答案] B.

[析] make somebody do (or doing) something, stop doing 意為停止做某事。

50? Our classroom must ___ clean every day.

A. keep

B. to keep

C. be kept

D. to be kept

[答案] C.

[析] 應為被動語態。

51? I hear there ___ a sports meeting in our school next week.

A. is going to have

B. will have

C. is going to be

D. are going to be

[答案] C.

[析] 這是hear 的賓語從句是there be 句型。而且是用了be going to形式。

52? It's getting colder, Peter. You'd better ___ this coat with you.

A. bring

B. carry

C. take

D. get

[答案] C.

[析] bring 帶來,take 帶走。

53? Our classroom is clean and tidy. It ___ every day.

A. cleans

B. is cleaning

C. cleaned

D. is cleaned

[答案] D.

[析] 這里表達的是經常的一種狀態,所以應用一般現在時的被動語態。

54? If you are not careful in the street, a car may ___ you.

A. hurt

B. hit

C. run

D. catch

[答案] B.

[析] hit撞上,碰上,擊中

55? The farmers were busy ___ ready for the next year.

A. got

B. getting

C. to get

D. get

[答案] B.

[析] be busy后應用動詞的ing形式。



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